crst 2018

CrSt 3/2018

CrSt 3/2018


Miriam Benfatto
Le Prevenciones divinas contra la vana idolatría de las gentes (ca. 1670) di Isaac Orobio de Castro e il loro posto nella letteratura polemica ebraica anticristiana

This article aims to place the Jewish polemical text “Prevenciones divinas contra la vana idolatría de las gentes”, written by Isaac Orobio de Castro, in the broader framework of the anti-Christian Jewish polemical literature, through the observation of some stylistic and argumentative discontinuities or continuity. The “Prevenciones” occupied an important role in the history of European thought. This text circulated clandestinely among the libraries of the free thinkers and the European illuminists. It is for this reason that the text is able to shed light on a piece of history that is not only part of Jewish history.

Liviana Gazzetta
Donne e sacerdozio tra Ottocento e Novecento. Culto mariano e riparazione sacerdotale in alcune esperienze religiose femminili in Francia e Italia

Our paper points out the emergence, in France and Italy in the 19th and 20th centuries, of a number of female religious initiatives marked by a reparative sensitivity to the clergy’s mistakes: for example, the devotion to «Vierge Prêtre» by Marie Deluil Martiny, the devotion of the Victims adorers in Company of St. Angela Merici di Siena and the spirituality of Da Persico’s Daughters. The purpose was visualized through the worship of the Virgin as Co-Redemptrix or through victims’ practices to gain special intercessions for the clergy’s behaviour. These phenomena can be read as a sign of the awareness of the impossibility for females to become priests.

Étienne Fouilloux
Les thomistes dominicains en France (premier XXe siècle)

In 1960, the Sorbonne philosopher Étienne Gilson wrote about ‘the great family of Thomists’. In such a family, two branches of the Dominican Order in France played an outstanding role: the Saulchoir school, led by Father Marie-Dominique Chenu in an historical way and the Saint-Maximin school, led in a metaphysical way by the lay philosopher Jacques Maritain. Both played an important role in the work of Vatican II council. This essay is an attempt to provide a brief history of these two models of understanding Thomism

Frédéric Gugelot
Le «moment» du soupçon. Sciences humaines et Compagnie de Jésus (années 1960)

In the sixties, new fields appeared in the Humanities. The new mentors were Marx, Nietzsche, Freud and Lévi-Strauss. But how were the latest innovations to be accepted without their destructive dimension for faith and churches? The Society of Jesus wanted to convert them to Christianity. Jesuits participated into the most innovative trend and invented a Jesuit way of pursuing the Humanities but failed to Catholicise them.


Giuseppe Bartolozzi
Considerazioni dottrinali sulla crisi ariana

This note is to be intended as a critical comment on the interpretation that the authoritative scholar Manlio Simonetti has made concerning some doctrinal arguments pertaining to the development of the Aryan crisis. It focuses in particular on the second formula of faith brought up at the Council of Antioch, in the year 341, which is regarded as moderate and therefore orthodox, but which in fact shows the divided doctrine of the hypostases typical of Aryanism. Secondly, the Monarchian interpretation of the Nicene symbol is also discussed, proving that, contrary to the hypothesis of the scholar, the Nicene “homoousios” regarded “ousiai” as totally distinct from the Father and the Son, which is confirmed by the teaching of Athanasius, by the Homoeousians, and also by Basil of Caesarea.

Federico Ruozzi
Don Lorenzo Milani: fonti e studi 2016-2018. Bollettino bibliografico

In the 1/2015 issue, this journal inaugurated an overview (2007-2015) of the literature concerning Lorenzo Milani in order to report on the numerous books and articles on the Florentine priest published every year. The overview was required by the task that had been entrusted in 1973-1974 to the John XXIII Institute for Religious Studies by Milani’s mother, Alice Weiss, when she decided to donate the Milani archival fund to the research institute in Bologna in order for it to preserve the legacy of this key figure in the history of 20th century Italian Catholicism and to study his life and work. The present bibliographical overview has become even more necessary after the publication of the “Opera Omnia” (Meridiani Mondadori, 2017) with the critical edition of Milani’s corpus text and after the conclusion of the double 50th. anniversary: “Letter to a Teacher” (May 1967) and Milani’s death (June 1967).

Enrico Galavotti
Il Vaticano II e la Curia romana. Sul diario conciliare di Pericle Felici

The last edition of the Council journal written by Pericle Felici is a precious source for scholars who want to retrace the history of the Second Vatican Council. The journal describes both Felici’s role during the preliminary phase of the Council and his activity as Secretary General of the Council but presents serious gaps in its critical apparatus. Thus it is a useful source in which to observe in particular Felici’s attitude as a man of the Curia towards the Second Vatican Council and to understand his doubts and his reluctances concerning the process of renewal initiated by the Council. In this, Felici reveals his profound agreement with various sectors of the Roman Curia as they were obliged to acknowledge that the Council was substantially reshaping their role in the government of the Catholic Church.


Giuseppe Ruggieri, Selon l’Esprit de sainteté. Genèse d’une théologie systématique, di Ch. Theobald


M. Goff, L.T. Stuckenbruck, E. Morano (S. Paganini), L. Baccelli (G. Zamagni), R. Schlögl (M.T. Fattori), M. Ceschia (M. Maraviglia), S.E. Jones (S. Schloesser SJ), A. Santagata (D. Pelletier), M. Faggioli (S.P. Millies)

CrSt 2/2018

crst 2:2018


Atria A. Larson
Papal Councils and the Development of Lay Penance in the Long Twelfth Century

Sylvio H. De Franceschi
Les minimes et la discipline du jeûne et de l’abstinence à l’âge classique. Identité monastique, morale régulière et ascétisme alimentaire au XVII siècle

In christianism, the Carthusians have for a long time embodied the most rigorous monastic discipline in matters of food, but other religious orders has also observed severe abstinence from food. In the 17th century, the order of the Minims has acquired much of its austere reputation in catholicity by the observance of severe food deprivations. The interpretations that could be given to the food discipline of the Minims in the 17th century reveal very clearly different doctrinal choices in matters of moral theology. When they talk about the vow of quadragesimal life, the modern casuists, whether Minims or not, contribute to reinforcing and emphasizing its fundamental role in creating the Minim monastic identity.

Enrico Galavotti
Il governo Della Chiesa. Sulla cultura curiale di Benedetto XV

The ecclesiastical formation of Giacomo Della Chiesa took place mainly within the Curia of Leo XIII, that is to say in an exceptional phase for the central government of the Church, deprived of temporal power from 1870. Della Chiesa became the witness and the protagonist of the profound transformation that the Roman Curia saw in these circumstances, when men and strategies alternated. Thus it was with the wealth of experience gained in these years that from 1914, as Pope Benedict XV, he had to face the crisis of the Great War. The historical perspective allows us today to gather the consistency of the decisions taken by Benedict XV and to appraise the strategies used to commit the Curia to realization of his own program.


Silvia Scatena, Joseph A. Komonchak, Carlos Schickendantz, Peter Hünermann,
«Chiesa sinodale»: forum di discussione a partire da un volume di Giuseppe Ruggieri

The Forum presents a critical debate on the topic of the synodal aspects of the Church and analyses the volume “Chiesa Sinodale” by Giuseppe Ruggieri (Laterza, 2017). After more than ten years of research on synodal procedures, the liturgical aspect of the synodal event, the Vatican Council II and changes that it introduced in its own literary style of its documents, the author put together this dense collection of studies. Following Ruggieri’s suggestion, three theologians from different cultural areas have been invited to the Forum: Joseph Komonchank, emeritus professor at Catholic University of America, Carlos Schickndantz of University Alberto Hurtado in Santiago Chile and Peter Hunermann, already professor at Eberhard Karls Universitat in Tubingen.

Eleonora Capannolo
«Convivenza in uno spirito competitivo»: il dialogo religioso nella Tarda Antichità. A proposito di un libro recente

The relations between pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity have been the subject of many scholarly works in recent decades. One of these is the precious contribution offered by “Pagans and Christians in Late Antique Rome: Conflict, Competition and Coexistence in the Fourth Century”, edited by Michele Renee Salzman, Marianne Sághy and Rita Lizzi Testa, New York 2015. This volume, containing the proceedings of a conference held in 2012 at the Hungarian Academy in Rome, presents a new perspective on pagan-Christian conflict and offers novel insights into late ancient Rome, changing the ways in which modern scholars see how Christianity transformed faith, society and culture. This article presents a discussion of its 18 chapters, which incorporate a wide range of evidence, comprising archeological material, literature, mortuary evidence and religious iconography. Coexistence together with conflict, in a competitive spirit, is the key to understanding the changes that pagans and Christians effected from the age of Constantine to the end of the fourth century and into the fifth century.

Giuseppe Battelli
Bibliografia di Giovanni Miccoli 1953-2017

The following pages offer an exhaustive bibliography of the Italian historian Giovanni Miccoli, who died last year on 28th March. Born in Trieste in 1933, as a young man, Miccoli studied in the prestigious Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa under the guidance of such philologists and medievalists as Bertolini, Campana and Frugoni. He continued his development as an historian with D. Cantimori and G. Vinay until he gained the chair of Medieval History (1967), which was later changed into Church History. During the following 50 years, G.M. became one of the most important European scholars of Religious History, paying particular attention to themes such as Gregorian reform, Franciscan studies, Catholic anti-Semitism and the contemporary papacy. The Bibliography, containing over 400 titles, includes works concerning both religious historiography and public debate on political and cultural issues of the period, although by far the greatest amount of space is dedicated to reserved to historical contributions and methodological considerations.


H. Behlmer, M. Tamcke (P. Luisier), R.E. Payne (V. Berti), I. Dorfmann-Lazarev (B. Contin), A. D’Incà (Paola Marone), B. Faes (M. Pereira) C. Connochie-Bourgne, J.-R. Fanlo (F. Marxer), M.T. Fattori (M. Al Kalak), A. Di Marco (M. Papasidero), L.O. Liberti (S. Pattin), J.A. Scampini, C. Schickendantz (S. Pattin), T. Cavalin, N. Viet-Depaule (M. Margotti), Y. Raison du Cleuziou (S. Rousseau)

CrSt 1/2018

crst 1/2018

La Collectio Avellana fra Tardoantico e Alto Medioevo (a cura di Rita Lizzi Testa)

Rita Lizzi Testa
La Collectio Avellana: il suo compilatore e i suoi fruitori, fra Tardoantico e Alto Medioevo

This “Introduction” offers a brief presentation of the essays contained in the volume and some hypotheses concerning the chronology of the “Collectio Avellana” (CA) and the personality of its compiler. The CA can be considered an ‘asystematic’ Late Antique collection because, in neglecting chronological order, it collects integral texts, in this case not only Acts of councils and papal letters (as canonical collections generally do), but also re-scripts and imperial letters. Examination of two sections of the CA, which can be considered chronologically the first (CA 1-40) and the last (CA 82-93) in the collection, seems to confirm that their texts were sought in different archives – in Rome, Constantinople, the papal chancery and imperial and private archives – and that they were transcribed in the CA in order to be used for composing future documents, such as edicts, doctrinal treatises and laws. In this sense, the compiler of the CA does not seem to have been a cleric, but rather an official, perhaps Cassiodorus himself, who added different materials at different times during his political activity: between 526 and 533, in order to intervene normatively in the contested elections of bishops (in Rome and elsewhere in the Empire); after 550, probably in “Vivarium”, in an attempt to reconcile the Italian churches that wanted to detach themselves from Rome, thus defending the image and the work of Pope Vigilius.

La formazione della Collectio Avellana

Dominic Moreau
Le processus de compilation des collections canoniques italiennes pendant l’Antiquité

The history of the compilation process of the canonical collections that we consider as ‘antique’ is not an exact science, because the conditions of composition, besides the use and reception of the vast majority of these miscellanies, are in no way documented. As far as those for which we are fortunate enough to have an author’s name (e.g. Dionysius Exiguus, Cresconius, etc.) or a context of application (for example, the Roman synod of 531 for the “Collectio (Ecclesiae) Thessalonicensis”) are concerned, there are no elements that might permit us to reinsert these works into the overall history completely. This situation, however, has not prevented researchers from studying the content of the canonical collections in depth or from proposing a classification, besides offering many hypotheses about their origin and their respective objectives. While assuming that we are working from pure speculation, this work attempts to draw a picture in three stages of the hypothetically reconstructed history of the compilation process of the Italian canonical collections in Antiquity, viz. until the end of the episcopate of Gregory I the Great.

Alexander W.H. Evers
The Collectio Avellana: An ‘Eccentric’ Canonical Collection?

This paper describes the structure and contents of the Collectio Avellana, presenting the many questions that it poses to modern scholars. It is, in point of fact, a precious collection, because it transmits a large number of documents that have not been kept elsewhere; it is eccentric in its kind, too, because it contains not only papal letters and ecclesiastical texts, but also imperial re-scripts and other legislative documents. Furthermore, it represents a mystery: the compiler is unknown and it is not possible to determine the precise historical moment of compilation, the “terminus post quem” being the middle of the sixth century, and the “terminus ante quem” five centuries later, when, in the eleventh century, the two oldest manuscripts that preserve the collection were created. Of the various opinions proposed for the possible late-antique physiognomy of the CA, and for the goals of its compiler, the author believes that the suggestions of its nineteenth-century editor, Otto Günther, are still those from which one must depart in order to try to solve the many problems that the collection poses.

Andrea Antonio Verardi
Il Liber Pontificalis romano e le collezioni di diritto canonico altomedievali di area italica

The article analyzes the relationship between the first three versions of the Roman “Liber Pontificalis” and the canonical collections of the same period. Particular emphasis is placed both on the legal knowledge of the authors of the LP and on the value of these writings in connection to the coeval canonical collections that have been proven, or assumed, to have a Roman origin (“Dionysiana, Avellana, and Mutinensis”). The period considered is the sixth century, but exploratory essays have also been proposed for later centuries, from the ninth to the eleventh, which emphasize the LP’s fortune as a normative source in the field of canonical law.

Pierre Jaillette
Un nouveau type de recueil: le Code de lois

When the Theodosian Code came into force in January 439, it did not prevent any further normative production on the part of the chancelleries of Constantinople and Ravenna, but from then onwards the newlypromulgated laws in one part of the Empire were to be enforced in the other only on condition that they be sent through a pragmatic sanction. This decision, which was made by Theodosius II, can be found in a section of the decree implementing the Code sent to Florentius, Prefect of the Orient, on 15 February 438, the latter being entrusted with the mission to publicise the contents of the text to whoever it concerned. We learn about this measure through the “sylloge Maioriani”, a set of Novels by Theodosius II, Valentinian III and Majorian, compiled under the latter’s reign. Recorded under the heading of “De Theodosiani codicis auctoritate”, the constitution sheds new light on the manifold reasons which urged the Emperor to initiate an official record of the constitutions written since Constantine and then to have it drawn up in his own name, its main purpose being to expound civil law, these being the basic reasons why it is so interesting.

Josep Vilella Masana
Colecciones falsamente atribuidas a un concilio

The canons traditionally attributed to a council held in Elvira (Granada) drew on normative ecclesiastical materials that belonged to at least three collections (without reproducing them literally). Known only in their ‘pseudoiliberritan’ version, these texts of different origins and chronologies also underwent some (basically explanatory) modifications and amplifications after they had already become part of the ‘new’ collection: at that point, interpolations and even other canons were added. The non coherent nature of these precepts (whose composition appears to be established starting from the second half of the sixth century) clearly emerge from philological and comparative analysis, the main results of which are set forth here. It is also possible to detect a textual mixture between the ‘preface’ of the Hispanical Canonical Collection (CCH) and the beginning of the canonical series. This is not to say that the Hispanic assembly linked to these canons was not an historical event. In point of fact, it probably took place shortly after the council of Nicaea.

Philippe Blaudeau
Collections du schisme acacien

Three latin collections (“Veronensis”, “Berolinensis”, and “Avellana”) are studied in this paper, following in the tracks of the previous great works of their main German editors Otto Günther and particularly Eduard Schwartz. Some of their conclusions are questioned and new insights are offered. “Veronensis”, “Berolinensis” and “Avellana” are different: the period, the context of their constitution, their length and contents, and even their aims, all are diverse. Their diffusion and transmission have been varied as well. However, these three collections have special connexions with the papal archives. Moreover, they all consist of responses to a fast evolving situation from the end of the fifth century to the Justinian era. They are of great value for they present exceptional documents (one can think for instance of Gelasius’ famous letter to emperor Anastasius, written in 494), and they are subject of a highly original Fortleben. Furthermore, they still maintain some mystery, giving an opportunity for further inquiries.

Paola Paolucci
Un’ipotesi sulla formazione della Collectio Avellana. Dai due manoscritti Vaticani à rebours

This paper arises from the need for a careful examination of Günther’s edition of “Collectio Avellana” (1895) in view of the formulation of the forthcoming proposals and suggestions for a transfer of a digital edition of this Collection and of the most famous canonical Collections online. This has led to tackling the complex problem of the manuscript tradition of the Avellana collection, as witnessed by the ancestor of its tradition (Vat. Lat. 3787) and its almost contemporary Vatican apograph. Starting from the examination of the different hands of copyists who took turns in the drafting of Vatican 3787, and through a sample examination of corrupt textual passages and vulgar mistakes in some epistles, also testified in other manuscripts and shared by Avellana and other collections, it is hypothesized that the Avellana collection may have originated in Polirone from the “conflatio” of three “collectiunculae”.

La lettura della Collectio Avellana nell’Alto Medioevo

Marco Palma
Raffaella Crociani Minima marginalia. Qualche osservazione sui due più antichi manoscritti della Collectio Avellana

The two oldest manuscripts of the “Collectio Avellana”, Vat. Lat. 3787 and 4961 were written in Polirone and Nonantola between the end of the eleventh to the century and the beginnig of the twelfth centuries. Vat. Lat. 4961 is a direct copy of the other manuscript, as the text and the marginal notes (reproduced very precisely in the apograph) prove. There was no second model, as Günther assumed on the basis of the repetition of part of ep. 103 and the “inscriptio” in ep. 104 at the end of Vat. Lat. 4961: it is a typical case of “horror vacui”. The “Damianus clericus Sancte Romane Ecclesie”, cited in Vat. Lat. 4945, is identified as Pier Damiani’s nephew, who was later abbot of Nonantola, prior of Fonte Avellana and promoter of the transcription of twelve manuscripts of the utmost textual importance.

Nicolangelo D’Acunto
La ricezione della Collectio Avellana alla fine del secolo XI tra il milieu di Matilde di Canossa e quello dell’antipapa Clemente III

The two most ancient and important manuscripts in the “Collectio Avellana” were produced and circulated within some monastic institutions linked to Matilde di Canossa and hence to the Gregorian movement: the Nonantola and Polirone monasteries and the Fonte Avellana hermitage. Some quotations from the letters of “Collectio Avellana” in the “Collectio canonum” of Anselmo da Lucca, one of the most authoritative exponents of the Gregorian party, confirm their reception in the Gregorian context. Nevertheless, this does not authorise us to claim that the “Collectio Avellana” was used solely within Matilde of Canossa’s circle. In point of fact, two letters from the “Collectio Avellana” are used and skilfully manipulated in the Defensio Henrici IV, which was written by Crasso, one of the supporters in Ravenna of antipope Clement III. This confirms that during the investiture controversy the same canons were used, and frequently manipulated, in order to support opposing arguments.

Giulia Marconi
La Collectio Avellana nell’XI-XII secolo: attualità di un testo tardoantico nell’Alto Medioevo

This paper examines the revival of the “Collectio Avellana” in the eleventh- twelfth centuries, in order to find clues that may serve to shed light on the obscure origins of the collection in the VI century. The “Collectio” was copied in two manuscripts, commented on and annotated after having seemingly been forgotten for five hundred years. The analysis of these notes shows that the collection was widely used both in the Roman-Catholic and in the Imperial environments, in Italy and in Germany, for practical and administrative, or polemical, reasons. The results of this survey propose a new way of understanding the “Collectio Avellana”: it was not an ordinary canonical collection but rather a special and “ante litteram” experiment of a “ius commune”.


A. Kam-Yau Chan, Melchizedek Passages in the Bible. A Case Study for Inner-Biblical and Inter-Biblical Interpreta-tion (A. Gianto) 301; Storia del cristianesimo, vol. III, L’età moderna (secoli XVI-XVIII), a cura di V. Lavenia (M. Al Kalak) 302; K. Schatz, Geschichte der deutschen Jesuiten, vol. III, 1917-1945 (L. Pozzi) 306; H. Donneaud, A. Laf-fay, B. Montagnes, La Province dominicaine de Toulouse (XIXe-XXe siècles). Une histoire intellectuelle et spirituelle (Ph. Denis) 308