crst 2010

CrSt 3/2010

Gesila Nneka Uzukwu
The problem with the three expressions of gratitude found in Greek writings and their alleged relationship to Gal 3:28 

This paper examines a wide range of issues relevant to asking the ques- tion of whether the three expressions of gratitude found in Greek texts were influenced by the message of Gal 3:28. Looking at the dating of the texts in question, their social and historical contexts, and the in- teractive influences of Greek, Jewish and Christian cultural values and ideas in the first three centuries, this paper suggests that there is no relationship of dependence between Gal 3:28 and the Greek writings. What they have in common is what we call thought structures, which have their origin in Greek philosophy and have been adopted by both Greek and early Christian writings, as well as other ancient works.

Emanuela Colombi
Storie di cronache e reliquie: la nascita del patriarcato di Grado nelle prime cronache veneziane

This essay focuses on the comparison between the different versions proposed for the birth of the Patriarchate of Grado by the early Venetian chronicles, in light of possible mutual influences and relationships with the account given by Paolo Diacono in the Historia Langobardorum and the information given by other documents of the same period. In particular, the essay analyzes the issue of the transfer of saints’ relics from Aquileia to Grado and the reformulation of the contents of the synod of Grado of 579.

Alessandra Costanzo
Una nuova datazione del De vera et falsa poenitentia

The De vera et falsa poenitentia is not the product of one author alone but of three authors from different historical periods. After considering the different hypotheses about the dating of the De vera et falsa poenitentia, the essay proposes decisive criteria for a new dating: the first author wrote between the end of the 7th and the beginning of the 8th century, the second author between the end of the 11th and the begin- ning of the 12th century, and the third and last author in the first deca- des of the 12th century, and certainly not after the Decretum Gratiani.

João Paulo Oliveira e Costa
O baptismo e a Fé dos cristãos japoneses (séc . XVI-XVII) 

The spread of Christianity in Japan was successful from the beginning of the mission. With few missionaries in the country, baptisms were carefully prepared and preceded by a period of catechumenate. After Christianity gained a political dimension and several daimyos (feudal lords) ordered the conversion of their subjects, mass baptisms followed. In Christianized areas, baptism started to occur eight days after the birth of a child. In Japan, the Church created a large Christendom, with a large core of faithful believers, but they were unable to resist the systematic persecution suffered after 1614.

Giuseppe Battelli
Una «guerra fredda» nel cuore dell’Italia centrista.La Bologna del cardinale Lercaro e del Pci che governa del sindaco Dozza (1952-1956)

In post-World War II Italy, the brief period of cooperation between the political parties of the anti-Fascist resistance and of the Constitutio- nal convention was followed by a long period of hegemony of political moderatism, the center of which was the Christian-Democratic Party. The city of Bologna was a relevant exception, given the local force of the parties of the Left and the opposition against these parties, not only from moderates but also from local Catholic dioceses and from Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro. This essay offers new elements drawn from new archival sources and from a new method of analysis. In this period religious principles, ideological elements, and juridical contradictions were at play between the Fascist regime in the past and the new democratic regime.

Giovanni Miccoli,
L’insegnamento fiorentino di Pino Al- berigo . I preamboli di un’opera storiografica di inconsueto spessore 

The relationship between Giuseppe Alberigo, as a young visiting profes- sor at the University of Florence, and Delio Cantimori was a relationship of scholarly cooperation but also of intellectual discipleship and real friendship. This becomes clear when we read that Alberigo wrote Cantimori concerning the early challenges of his academic career and Cantimori apologized for his inability to help his young disciple more in navigating the Italian academic world: “I know well what I received from you on so many levels – all of them much more important than my academic career! What I received from you as a person and as a scholar and – if you allow me – as a Christian is the real bottom line of our relationship, that unfortunately did not see a comparable contribution from me” (January 5, 1959).


Timothy D. Barnes
William Tabbernee and Montanism

This article assesses the contribution which William Tabbernee has made to our knowledge and understanding of Montanism, especially in three recent books. It first summarises Pepouza and Tymion . The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate, which he wrote jointly with Peter Lampe (Berlin-New York 2008) and Prophets and Gravestones . An Imaginative History of Montanists and other Early Christians (Peabody 2009), then offers a more detailed critique of Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments Eccle- siastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae 84 (Leiden-Boston 2007). This includes an up-to-date list of proconsuls of Asia from 160 to 173, into which must be slotted the name of Gratus, who was proconsul when Montanus began to prophesy


Boudewijn Dehandschutter, Polycarpiana . Studies on Martyrdom and Persecution in Early Christianity . Collected Essays (G.A. Guazzelli) 957; Albrecht Berger (ed.), Life and Works of Saint Gregentios, Archbishop of Taphar . Introduction, Critical Edition and Translation, (Ph. Luisier) 958; Valeria De Fraja, Oltre Cîteaux . Gioacchino da Fiore e l’Ordine florense (A. Cadili) 963; Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, The Popes and the Baltic Crusades (G. Dickson) 966; Grado Giovanni Merlo, Inquisitori e Inquisizione nel Medioevo (A. Cadili) 970; Ottavia Niccoli, Perdonare . Idee, pratiche, rituali in Italia tra Cinque e Seicento (M.T. Fattori) 974; A. Prosperi (a cura di), Misericordie . Conversioni sotto il patibolo tra Medioevo ed età moderna (M.T. Fattori) 976; L. Bianchi (a cura di), L’eucaristia nella tradizione orientale e occidentale: con speciale riferi- mento al dialogo ecumenico . Atti del IX simposio intercristiano, Assisi 4-7 settembre 2005, Istituto francescano di spiritualità della Pontificia università Antonianum di Roma e Dipartimento di teologia della Fa- coltà teologica dell’Università Aristoteles di Tessalonica, Venezia-Mestre (M. Scarpa) 981; Mauro Letterio (a cura di), Benedetto XV . Profeta di pace in un mondo in crisi (D. Sarasella) 983; Pietro Damiano Scardilli, I nuclei ecclesiologici nella costituzione liturgica del Vaticano II (M. Faggioli) 986; Adomnano di Iona, I luoghi santi (L. Russo) 987; K. Bracht und D.S. du Toit (Hrsg.), Die Geschichte der Daniel-Auslegung in Judentum, Christentum und Islam . Studien zur Kommentierung des (H. Gzella) 989

Libri ricevuti

Per le abbreviazioni si utilizza l’Abkürzungsverzeichnis della Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Berlin-New York 21994.

CrSt 2/2010

Maria Teresa Fattori
Introduzione. Politiche sacramentali tra Vecchio e Nuovi Mondi nei secoli XVI-XVIII

This introductory article of the monographical issue of the journal focuses on the ways Christian missionaries encountered cultures and religions of the non-European world. It casts a light on the importance of this question starting with the discipline of otherness in medie- val Christendom and presents the themes highlighted by the articles in the issue. The meeting of missionaries and non-European peoples have produced various adaptations, at the same time, however, the encounters have leveled the differences, reshaping them, especially in the area of moral, matrimonial and sexual behavior, according to the Tridentine model.

Fabrizio Mandreoli
Note sulla teologia sacramentaria tra il XII e il XV secolo

This essay focuses on the history of the theology of sacraments and especially its development between the 12th and the 15th centuries. The primary sources of the investigation include the conciliar deliberations on the sacraments of baptism and eucharist during these four centuries. It becomes clear in the analysis that social, anthropological, and institutional elements are in play in the theological reflection, all interacting with the theological debate within the Church. Especially important for the understanding of the sacraments in the life of the Church is the idea of difference and otherness in the debates at the councils celebrated between the 12th and the 15th centuries.

Riccardo Saccenti
Quidam dicunt quod aqua sive ablutio, quidam quod character. Discussioni sulla natura del battesimo fra la metà del XII e i primi decenni del XIII secolo

The sacrament of baptism is at the centre of a large theological debate between the middle of the XII century and the middle of the XIII. Starting with Peter Lombard’s position in his Sentences, the theological debate developed a deeper understanding of the various aspects of baptism. The main theologians engaged in it were Stephen Langton, William of Auxerre, Alexander of Hales and Hugues of Saint-Cher. Their doctrines had an evident influence on the positions of the subsequent authors such as Bonaventure of Bagnoregio and Thomas Aquinas.

Ângela Barreto Xavier
“Conformes á terra no modo de viver”. Matrimónio e império na Goa quinhentista

The essay analyzes the social and political consequences of the con- versions to Christianity in Goa, in particular the consequences on the practice of marriage. The canon law was preceded by the norms of the Portuguese empire in India, which favored the association between the conversion to Christianity and the granting of the rights of citizenship for new converts. On the other side, the native peoples used conversion to gain political inclusion or to preserve their social status.

Giuseppe Marcocci
Teologia e missioni in un impero commerciale: casi di coscienza e sacramenti nel mondo portoghese, ca. 1550-1600

This article analyzes the creation and development of the “casuistry” of missionary theology in the territories of the Portoguese Empire in the second half of the 16th century. It focuses on the internal debates of the Society of Jesus from Europe to India, and from Brasil to Japan, looking especially at the issue of the strategy of adaptation in the administration of sacraments in non-European territories.

Bruno Boute
The Trial of Melchisedek. Bureaucrats of the faith in Rome and engineers of the sacred in Flanders, 1606-1610 

In the course of the early modern period, hundreds of books about liturgy, devotional practices, and sacramental method were the object of preventive or repressive censorship by Roman Congregations. In this article, a specific case – the Louvain affair of Jacobus Jansonius’ Liturgica (1606-1609) – is used as a platform to integrate research into religious practice into ritual studies in general, and as an opportunity to turn the scepticism of Philiph Buc’s The Danger of Ritual into an analytical vantage point in particular. Investigating the complex relationship between orthodoxy, orthopraxy, and writing about religious practice, this essay seeks to contribute to the history of the “practising Christian”, the primary unit of analysis in today’s Sociology and Anthropology of Christianity.

Boris Jeanne
La pratique sacramentaire de la mission à l’épreuve de Rome. La dispense des sacrements dans la christianisation de la Nouvelle-Espagne au XVIe siècle et les retours devant la cour pontificale 

The geographical discoveries of the XVI century permitted the monarchs of Spain to direct the creation of the Catholic Church in the New World. This essay focuses on the relationship between the Holy See and the missionary expansion, especially through the analysis of the administration of the sacraments in the Americas and of the dubia circa sacramenta sent by the missionaries to the Holy See. The comparison between these pontifical documents and the chronicles of the missionaries allows us to understand the mobilization of the sacramental life in the diplomatic exchanges between Rome and Madrid in the second half of the XVI century, that is, well before the creation of Propaganda Fide in 1622.

Eugenio Menegon
Deliver Us from Evil: Confession and Salvation in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century Chinese Catholicism 

Focusing on confession in late imperial China, this essay explores how missionaries and converts approached Christian ideas of sin and salvation, and sacramental notions and practices. Confession was a community-building device, a response to individual psychological and spiritual needs, and a disciplinary tool. Within a common belief in sin and salvation shared by Europeans and Chinese alike, Catholic confessional practices fulfilled a varied spectrum of expectations, and took on differing meanings according to specific Chinese circumstances.

Michela Catto
“La legge de’ Portughesi è la distruzione del nostro Regno”: le pratiche sacramentali della Chiesa cristiana come rovina del grande Impero cinese 

The essay focuses on the issues of Christian theology and translation of concepts previously absent in Chinese culture. The issue of the “Chine- se rituals” was indeed fueled by the scant results of the evangelization of the Chinese empire, where the social-religious practices of Christians were perceived as a threat to the local rules and to the social-political fabric of China. From Europe, on the other hand, every adaptation was seen as a compromise with paganism.

Paolo Aranha
Sacramenti o saṃskārāḥ? L’illusione dell’accommodatio nella controversia dei riti malabarici

Between 1704 and 1744, the Holy See prohibited the Malabar rites in India, a particular adaptation of Catholicism in the culture of Southern India. From a Euro-centric perspective, they can be considered an early form of theological inculturation. From an Indian point of view, the rites are the Christian version of Hindu sacraments (saṃskara), which make the individual a participant in community life and a member of a hierarchically organized society.

Sabina Pavone
Tra Roma e il Malabar: il dibattito intorno ai sacramenti ai paria nelle carte dell’Inquisizione romana (secc. XVII-XVIII)

The essay aims at reconstructing the debate on the administration of the sacraments to the outcasts (paria) in India during the querelle about the Malabar rites, through the analysis of the reports written by the Jesuits and the Holy Office. It aims to show the changes that happened within the Roman Congregations in addressing the issue of the administration of the sacraments in India and the different approaches between the Jesuits and the Roman Curia toward the issue of the existence of the caste system in Indian society.

Adone Agnolin
Grammatica dell’evangelizzazione e catechesi della lingua indigena. Mesoamerica e Brasile: XVI- XVII secolo. Traduzione come conversione. Le lingue generali, il “Greco della Terra” e l’invenzione del Tupì

This essay focuses on the issue of the language of the catechesis for the indigenous people of Latin America in the XVI and XVII centuries, identifying the main ideas of the Jesuits’ catechesis in Brasil on the basis of the new spirituality of the Society of Jesus and its missionary results. In this respect the essay addresses the relationship between the analysis of the otherness of the indigenous people sub specie religionis and sub specie grammaticae, pivoting around the central role of the confession (for the indigenous people) and of the examination of conscience (for the Jesuits).

Daniela Fugaro
Libri antichi sulle Ande. Quindici anni di catalogazione di fondi librari antichi in Perù, Bolivia ed Ecuador (1995-2009)

Thanks to data gathered in the old libraries of the Andes in South America – Cusco, Arequipa, Trujillo and Lima (Perù), Sucre (Bolivia), Quito (Ecuador) – this article reveals a wide selection of texts of sacramental theology used in the education of young priests and of members of the religious orders in the New World between the XVI and XVIII centuries. These texts are still in the collections of great monastic institutions (Cu- sco, Arequipa, Sucre, Quito) or of archdiocesan seminaries (Arequipa, Trujillo, Sucre). However, the Istituto Riva-Agüero’s collection instead gathers texts recently acquired on the market. This bibliographical overview offers new suggestions for the study of local traditions of theological education in Latin America.

CrSt 1/2010


A. Dupont
Mt. 1, 21 as Argument in Favour of Baptismus Paruulorum. A Comparison between Augustine’s Writings against Julian of Aeclanum and his Sermones ad Populum

This article studies the relationship between Augustine of Hippo’s (pastoral, exhortative) sermones ad populum and the (polemical, systematic) writings engaged in the Pelagian controversy, to determine whether the difference in genre leads to a difference in content and/or treatment of the topic of infant baptism. First, the presence of the topic of infant baptism in the Pelagian controversy is sketched based on a brief status quaestionis. Then Augustine’s application of Mt. 1, 21 – a verse that functions as an anti-Pelagian topos in his plea for infant baptism – serves as a case study to investigate possible influences caused by the difference of genre. The study of Mt. 1, 21 confirms that the topic of infant baptism receives less attention in the sermones than in his tractates. It also indicates a chronological difference. The majority of the occurrences of Mt. 1, 21 in the tractates are to be situated in the second phase of the Pelagian controversy (the discussion with Julian of Aeclanum), while the quotations of Mt. 1, 21 in De peccatorum meritis, sermones 174 and 293 belong to the first phase.

H. Urbano
Taqui onqoy y mesianismo andino en el siglo XVI. Los avatares de un discurso ideológico 

This expression designates an indigenous movement that the canonical Cristóbal Albornoz described as a “sect,” since the indigenous people after they were baptized left the Christians and invented a new belief system which set their pre-Hispanic divinities against the Christian God. According to the testimonies gathered by Albornoz, this movement developed in an area south of the Andes in the 1560s. Albornoz based his request for ecclesiastical prebend on the need for pastoral action against the indigenous people; this action was aided by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala.

S. Marotta
L’occupazione di Roma e della città leonina: rapporti tra santa Sede e autorità italiane dal 20 settembre alla vigilia del plebiscito del 2 ottobre 1870 

During the capture of Rome in 1870, the government in Florence pro- posed a solution to the “Roman Question” suggesting that the “Borgo” quarter, known as “città leonina,” bordering the Vatican, be left to the Holy See. The day after the breach of Porta Pia, however, Cardinal Antonelli requested the Italian army’s occupation of the zone on the right bank of the Tiber, which until then belonged to the papacy, in order to guarantee the safety of the pontiff and the cardinals. The article reconsiders the phases of the event and the historiographical interpretations of the decisions made in those hours by analyzing available testimonies and providing new documentary evidence, specifically the unedited drafts of the epistolary correspondence between Antonelli and the Italian general Raffaele Cadorna concerning the presence of the Italian troops in the “cit- tà leonina.” The collection of letters, discovered thanks to the reordering of the archives of Pope Pius XI, focuses above all on the need for the Italian army’s continued occupation of the città leonina.

A. Guasco
“La città assunse l’aspetto della guerra civile”. La santa Sede all’osservatorio di Fiume (1919-1925)

Looking at reports written for the Secretary of State by three apostolic administrators sent by the Holy See to Fiume ‒ Valentino Liva, Celso Costantini and Isidoro Sain ‒ the article reconstructs the main events in the city of Fiume in the period following the First World War to the mid- 1920s. In this period, the city became a privileged political laboratory first of post-war right-wing veterans and then of fascism.

M. Berrettini
Sacerdotium spagnolo, pastorale di guerra e nazional-cattolicesimo (1900-1930) 

During the first thirty years of the twentieth century, a few circles of the Spanish clergy involved in the colonial expedition in Marocco, not only those in the military, shaped a nationalist version of Catholicism through the creation of a particular pastoral message. This message consisted of liturgical practices created specifically for the armed forces and through an ideological revision of Spanish history in which the glorious events of Spain were identified in the successes of the Catholic faith.

A. Melloni
Galileo al Vaticano II. Storia d’una citazione e della sua ombra

The essay reconstructs the history of the indirect quotation of Galileo in the documents of Council Vatican II. Contrary to what was believed until now, the essay shows, on the basis of sources only partially published, that the idea of citing Galileo came about during the conciliar debate about divine revelation and was closely tied to the fear of a condemnation of Teilhard de Chardin by the Roman Curia. From there Galileo became an issue also for the debates about magisterium, family ethics, and culture. In the debate about culture Galileo was reduced to a reference to a famous book, which was heavily censored at the time, by Pio Paschini. Therefore, the quotation of Galileo as it appears in the corpus of Vati- can II, points out once again the issue of the function of the Church’s magisterium.

F. Michel
Exégèse, traduction et compromis: le Notre Père œcuménique (1966)

The article analyzes the drafting and reception of the ecumenical version of the “Our Father” which was adopted by French-speaking Christians in 1966. What debates arose during its drafting? How was the text received by the faithful, by pastors and by exegetes? The article contributes to the global analysis of the translation phenomenon during the liturgical reform and is based on documents found in the diocesan and archdiocesan archives of Mende, Cambrai and Strasbourg, as well as the archives of the CNPL located in the Centre National d’Archives de l’Église de France.


P.C. Bori
Alessandro Manzoni contre la torture, entres Lumières et homme-image de Dieu

Alessandro Manzoni draws from the tradition of Beccaria and Verri a strong sensitivity to the theme of human dignity. It is a central theme in I promessi sposi (God as protector of the weak) and in the story of the Colonna infame (respect for the physical integrity of a person which must be protected against torture). Nevertheless, besides his Enlightenment invective against “barbarity,” Manzoni uses the reference to man created in the image of God, according to Genesis 1:26, in the aforementioned texts, in Osservazioni sulla morale cattolica and in other texts.

A. Santagata
Una rassegna storiografica sul dissenso cattolico in Italia 

In this article, the author selectively reconstructs the Italian debate on Ca- tholic dissent in Italy from the origins of the phenomenon to historians’ most recent interpretations. In the seventies, historians began interpreting the phenomenon of “Catholic dissent” in a way that allowed the next generation of historians to bring important ideas to an understanding of the period of contestation in the Church. The new interpretations, though, have not exceeded the limits of an excessively politicized point of view.


Hagit Amirav, Bas ter Haar Romeny (ed.), From Rome to Constantinople. Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, (C. O. Tommasi) 243; Eduard Iricinschi, Holger M. Zellentin, (ed.), Heresy and Identity in Late Antiquity, (M. Angelovska-Panova) 250; George Heyman, The Power of Sacrifice: Roman and Christian Discourses in Conflict, (S. Knipe) 253; Sebastian Brock, Fire from Heaven. Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy, (S. Chialà) 256; Theo A.W. van der Louw, Transformations in the Septuagint. Towards an Interaction of Septuagint Studies and Translation Studies, (M. Cimosa) 259; Josep Baucells i Reig, Vivir en la Edad Media: Barcelona y su entorno en los siglos XIII y XIV (1230-1344), (I.S. Salazar) 265; Blake R. Beattie, Angelus Pacis. The Legation of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1326-1334, (A. Tilatti) 267; Bernard Barbiche, Bulla, Legatus, Nuntius. Études de diplomatique et de diplomatie pontificales (XIIIe-XVIIe siècle), (A. Tilatti) 268; Vito Mignozzi, “Tenenda est media via”. L’ec- clesiologia di Reginald Pole (1500-1558), (K. Ganzer) 269; Thomas F. Mayer, Courtney B. Walters (ed.),The Correspondence of Reginald Pole. 2. A Calendar, 1547-1554: A Power in Rome, (K. Ganzer) 274; Valentine Zuber (éd.), Michel Servet (1511-1553). Héresie et pluralisme du XVIe au XXIe siècle. Actes du Colloque de l’École pratique des Hautes Études, 11- 13 décembre 2003, (E. Brambilla) 276; Orietta Filippini, La coscienza del re. Juan de santo Tomás, confessore di Filippo IV di Spagna (1643-1644), (M.T. Fattori) 279; Giorgio Barberis, Louis de Bonald. Potere e ordine tra sovversione e Provvidenza, (M. Ravera) 281; Aa.Vv., Le religioni e il mondo moderno. I. Cristianesimo, (S. Apruzzese) 287.

Per le abbreviazioni si utilizza l’Abkürzungsverzeichnis della Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Berlin-New York 21994.

Sommario ed indice degli articoli vengono pubblicati in Historical Abstracts.