crst 2011

CrSt 3/2011


Peter Hünermann, Giuseppe Ruggieri
Per una introduzione alla lettura 

Alberto Melloni
Osservazioni a margine del rapporto consenso/concilio 

The relation between councils and liturgical life is apparent also in the forms employed which reveal their origin and development. The article describes the variety of synods starting from the second century. The council remains an essential element of the Christian tradition, due to the importance of consensus regardless of the procedure em- ployed. Therefore a multitude of procedures evolved over time in order to achieve a common consensus.

Peter Hünermann
Synodalität der Kirche – Grammatik des Glaubens: Reflexionen zur Frage Charismen und gläubige Identität 

After the Second Vatican Council, the theological debate discovered synodality as a basic feature of the Church. The essay shows the role played by charisms in an understanding of synodality as a fundamental dynamic moment of the life of the Christian community and of the fundamental elements of Christian faith.

Davide Dainese
Συνέρχομαι – συγκρότησις – σύνοδος Tre diversi usi della denominazione

This article analyzes the issue of synods in Christian communities in the second century. The focus is on the reception of such practices in Euse- bius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History (chapters V, and V 16, 23-26). The analysis here extends through the writings of Eusebius, focusing on three terms that the bishop of Caesarea used to address the subject.

Frederick Lauritzen
La formazione del consenso nella chiesa bizantina (843-1453) 

Consensus, or rather homologia, is expressed by way of synods in the Orthodox Church of the Byzantine Empire. This paper illustrates how one may establish the evolution of orthodox opinions about consensus through a history of councils and that the plurality of types reflects a variety of institutional practices whose development is parallel to that of dogmatic history of the Orthodox Church during the period 843-1453.

Alberto Cadili
Composizione, ruoli e formazione del con- senso nei concili della chiesa latina medievale (secoli XI- XIII)

To trace the formation of the consensus in the general councils between the XI and the XIII centuries, the essay first examines the development of participation, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The participation in general councils, which in the beginning was restricted to bishops and abbots only, gradually was extended only to the chapters, the men- dicant orders and the academic world. This essay identifies the role of these components in the discussion and in the formation of the decrees, vis à vis the enduring but not static role of the guidance of the pope. The essay presents a study in the development of the debate on the im- portance of the procedural aspects and the prominence of the various components, from the time of the Council of Basel – a debate that was well aware of the changing roles in the structure of the Church.

Giuseppe Ruggieri,
I diritti della sposa. Note sulla dottrina conciliare di Jean Gerson

According to Jean Gerson, the council is a celebration of the marriage of Christ with the Church. With this wedding, the Church retains the right to depose the husband, the vicar of Christ, that is, the pope, since he remains subject to the law of God and has received his office only for the goal of aedificatio ecclesiae. This case is the one that occurred in the Great Western Schism, during which the contending popes have not cared for the good of the church and have damaged the unity of the Church. Gerson always held this principle. However, he became convinced of the feasibility of this principle when he actually experi- mented with the alternatives to the council, the via cessionis and the via facti, which have proved even more impractical than the council itself. Beyond the legal importance attributed to the council at that historic moment, from the writings of Gerson we can see a conception emerging that is rooted in the experience of the life of the Church, the bride of Christ, united to him by the presence of the Spirit in the liturgy and the practice of Christian life.

Hans-Peter Großhans
Die Synoden in den lutherischen Kirchen

Synods, which are composed mostly of lay people, are now the central decision-making body in Lutheran Churches worldwide. This paper first presents the example of the role and function of the synods of the German Evangelical Lutheran Churches, then discusses the historical development of the synodal element in German Evangelical Lutheran Churches, and the evolution of the synodal element in global Lutheran- ism. The second part of the essay presents the dogmatic foundation of synods in Lutheran theology with particular reference to Luther’s view of synods and councils, as well as to the relevance of synods in Friedrich Schleiermacher’s ecclesiology.

Patrizio Foresta
Sinodi e consenso nelle chiese riformate

The synod is a gathering of one or more church communities, unit- ing to discuss and resolve questions that originate in the church itself or concern different churches. In addition to exercise doctrinal, legal, disciplinary, administrative and judicial functions, the synod is par ex- cellence the place where Christian churches reach an ecclesial consen- sus in matters of faith and discipline. This article aims to explore the issue of synodality in the Reformed churches from an historical point of view, examining some important periods between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which marked true watershed moments in their history and show some particular aspects of the complex link between the synod and consensus.

Paul Avis
Conciliarity in the Anglican Communion: History, Theology and Polemic

Conciliarity refers to that dimension of the Christian Church whereby the whole Church takes responsibility for its life and mission through representative structures. General Councils are the most salient expression of conciliarity, but it also takes several other forms. It is difficult to reconcile conciliarity with the highly monarchical forms of governance in the Church that have been characteristic of the papacy in the late Middle Ages and more recently, but conciliarity takes personal, as well as collegial and communal forms. Conciliar thinking flourished following the Great Schism of the West in 1378, but was defeated by the resurgence of the papacy. However, the legacy of conciliarism influenced the Protestant Reformers in the 16th century and has helped to shape all major churches in the modern era. Conciliarity is marked by the principles of representation, constitutionality and consent. The member Churches of the Anglican Communion each combine episcopal and synodical forms of governance, though their detailed polities are not all the same. The participation of the laity in structures of oversight is desired by the doctrine of the royal priesthood of the baptised. The Anglican Communion’s experience of conciliarity, centered on the four ‘instruments of communion’ (the Lambeth Conference of bishops, the ministry of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primates Meeting and the Anglican Consultative Council) is not juridical or coercive, but persuasive and dependent on moral and pastoral authority working towards the establishment of consensus.

Maria Teresa Fattori
«In Synodo, extra Synodum»: limiti del consenso in età tridentina 

The essay examines the De Synodo dioecesana of Benedict XIV (pub- lished in two editions in 1748 and 1755) in order to understand the state of synodality in the Tridentine Church, thanks to the multiple sources of Benedict XIV’s book: synods and councils of the early Church, me- dieval and post-Tridentine period, decisions of the Congregation of the Council in the Roman Curia; theological and canonical literature. After an initial analysis of the basic level of the element of consensus in the Church, the De Synodo dioecesana takes into account actual cases of consent by a synodal assembly, such as the vote on the cases of episco- pal reserves, on the value of the Masses, and on the selection of judges and assessors. Thus the metamorphosis of the synodal consent and the direction given by the Congregation of the Council in the interpretation and completion of the decrees of Trent is clear. These directions and interpretations lead to the centralized and bureaucratic understanding of synodality, which reduce to minimal terms the element of consent. These factors ultimately legitimized the widespread disaffection for the council as a tool of Church government.

Join Arnaud-Lambert
Les processus synodaux depuis le concile Vatican II: Une double expérience de l’Église et de l’Esprit Saint 

Catholic diocesan synods have been profoundly changed after Vatican II, especially by the ecclesiology of communion and by the importance given to the People of God. They are processes, not just regular one- time events (1). The nearly 800 celebrated synods so far show a specific rediscovery of ecclesiological and pneumatological dimensions (2). This synodality of the local churches also extends to other forms of diocesan assemblies and to local councils (3). This essay then develops five theo- logical perspectives and practices (4).

Per le abbreviazioni si utilizza l’Abkürzungsverzeichnis della Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Berlin-New York 21994.

CrSt 2/2011


Denis Pelletier
La “pleine communion”, le genre et la générosité. Un regard d’historien sur la constitution apostolique Anglicanorum cœtibus

The Roman authorities have presented the constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus as a “generous response” to Anglican demands . This article ad- dresses this topic with a perspective that looks at two issues . First, Anglicanism has faced in recent decades the gender issue in the context of “postcolonial” globalization, making it difficult to reach an internal com- promise. Second, the constitution is part of a long history of ecumenical dialogue, and it could emphasize and exacerbate the current difficulties .

Sabino Chialà
Origine e funzione dell’uniatismo. Il caso della Chiesa siro-orientale

On June 23, 1993 in Balamand (Lebanon), the members of the Joint International Commission for Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church signed an important document that condemned Uniatism calling it a method “of the past .” This document came after se- veral years of debate on one of the most controversial issues in the dialogue between Catholics and Orthodox, and it marked a watershed in the history of ecumenism . The essay reconsiders the issue of Uniatism starting from the document of Balamand, especially with the aim of identifying the drafting process of the document in its historical and theological framework . In doing this, the article employs as an example the union of the Chaldeans with the Roman Catholic Church, a case that permits a concluding evaluation of the phenomenon and its ecclesiological implications.

Hervé Legrand
Épiscopat, episcopè, Église locale et communion des Églises dans la constitution apostolique Anglicanorum cœtibus 

The ordinariate, an ecclesiastical institution granted by Rome to the Anglicans who wish to preserve their traditions within the Catholic Church, is foreign to their ecclesiology which sees the “historical episcopate” as one of the four pillars of the Lambeth Quadrilateral . The ordinary of the ordinariate can be a simple priest; even if ordained a bishop, his power will only be vicarious to the power of the Roman pontiff . A figure of new construction in Roman Catholic canon law, the ordinariate does not derive from an ecumenical impulse, but is only due to the pastoral solicitude for the needs of a special kind of faithful.

Anthony Jeremy
Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus and the personal ordinariate of our Lady of Walsingham 

The Anglican and Catholic traditions in theology, liturgy and spirituality have been lived out and expressed under ancient and complex systems of Canon Law in which there are both convergences and divergences between the two Communions. This paper examines the extent to which Anglican Patrimony can be preserved within the structure and juridical framework established by the Apostolic Constitution, and its Complementary Norms with particular reference to governance, admission to Holy Orders and pastoral care .

Georg Bier
Die Apostolische Konstitution Anglicanorum cœtibus und die Ergänzenden Normen der Kongregation für die Glaubenslehre. Eine kanonistische Analyse

Anglicanorum cœtibus seeks to promote the inclusion of Anglicans in the Catholic Church . Nevertheless, from a legal point of view, there is a striking juxtaposition, not without problems, between the Apostolic Constitution and its rules of application . The analysis of the rules provi- des information on the legal status of personal ordinariates, their relationship with the diocese and the special rights for Anglican priests who wish to become members of the Roman Catholic Church . The constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus makes the ecclesiological program of Pope Benedict XVI clear, as well as the idea of ecumenism that he supports .

Michel Van Parys
La Constitution apostolique Anglicano- rum cœtibus: l’évaluation d’un œcuméniste catholique 

Anglicanorum cœtibus has sometimes been presented by some as a step forward for ecumenism . Such an interpretation is misleading about the meaning of the irreversible commitment of the Catholic Church in the search for a unity of the Churches . The ecclesiological and canonical status of new ordinariates is unclear . A comparison with the present pastoral situation of the Eastern Catholic Churches in the Diaspora and with the Edinoverie in the Russian Orthodox Church raises doubts about their ecclesial and ecumenical future .

Christopher Hill
An evaluation of the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus in the current ecumenical situation

The Anglicanorum Cœtibus springs unexpectedly as a new element in the discussions between the Anglican and Catholic Churches . It has generally been received negatively . The document introduces structures within the Catholic Church which do not have a parallel in the Anglican Church such as the ‘ordinariate’ and fundamentally establishes an Anglican Uniat Church. It thus appears as a step backward from the progress in dialogue between the Anglican and Catholic churches


Carlos Blanco
La escatología apocalíptica y sus posibles influjos exógenos

The aim of this article is to examine some of the principal hypotheses regarding a possible exogenous origin of the fundamental notions that define Jewish apocalyptic eschatolog. It explores the afterlife image- ry in Egypt, Canaan, Mesopotamia, Hellenism, and Zoroastrianism, in which they are critically compared to Jewish apocalyptic eschatology concerning the interpretation of death and the meaning of history. The article highlights both the elements of continuity and discontinuity .

Ward De Pril
Historical-critical Thomas research and the debate on the “scientific” nature of theology in the 1930s

From the late 1920s onwards, several historically-oriented theologians (M .-D . Chenu, R . Draguet, L . Charlier, J .-F . Bonnefoy) deviated from the standard neo-Thomist approach to Thomas Aquinas by studying Thomas’s conception of theology on the basis of his own texts, instead of on the basis of the interpretation of later commentators . The results of this historical research were (initially) quite divergent. An analysis of the fundamental theological views of Chenu, Draguet, Charlier and Bonnefoy shows a complex interaction between these views and their historical hermeneutics of the theology of Thomas . In the action of the Holy Office against these theologians, more conservative churchmen were ill-disposed toward research that endangered the neo-Thomist synthesis of Thomas’s thought .

Enrico Galavotti
Cronache da Rossena. Le riunioni di scioglimento della corrente dossettiana nei resoconti dei partecipanti (agosto-settembre 1951) 

In the summer of 1951, after a particularly difficult political phase, Dos- setti convened his political followers in two seminars behind closed doors in the castle of Rossena, in the Apennines near Reggio Emilia, where, after having developed an extensive analysis of the political situation, he communicated his irrevocable decision to leave his executive position in the Christian Democratic Party . Thanks to the unpublished notes of Giuseppe Alberigo, Achille Ardigò and Luigi Paganelli, which are published in full in this article, we can rebuild the intense debate that took place in Rossena . That debate was the origin of the subsequent political decisions of the men who until then had seen in Dossetti their point of reference

Patrizio Foresta
Da barba a pastori. Il concilium generale di Chanforan (1532)

At the concilium generale of Chanforan, held on 12 September 1532, the communities of the Waldensian valleys, not without internal dissent, decided to join the Swiss Reformation . The article investigates some issues related to the synodal history of the Reformation churches: the historical importance of some synods that marked a before and an after in the life of the churches; the semantic variety of the synodal phenomenon; the essential synodal dynamics shared by all Christian confessions; the reaching of consensus among the communities of a single church and among dif- ferent churches, and the way in which the churches themselves aimed to achieve such a consensus, for instance involving other communities and asking them for help and advice before the synod; the process of reception in and among the churches; finally, the confessional nature of the synods and the historical relationship between synods and confession of faith .

Massimo Faggioli,
Council Vatican II: Bibliographical overview 2007-2010

This essay reviews and analyzes the theological debate about Vatican II in the last few years between 2007 and 2010 . In particular, the article focuses on the impact on the debate of the polarization between “hermeneutics of continuity and discontinuity”, evaluates the relationship between the hermeneutics of the council and reception (or rejection) of the historical studies on Vatican II, and attempts to offer an assessment of the ongoing debate about the the inter-textual dynamic of the council documents.


M . Meiser, Galater (F . Pieri) 793; Pietro Lombardo. Atti del XLIII Con- vegno storico internazionale. Todi, 8-10 ottobre 2006 (R . Saccenti) 796; Angelo Clareno francescano. Atti del XXIX Convegno internazionale, Società Internazionale di Studi Francescani – Centro Interuniversitario di Studi Francescani (Assisi, 5-7 ottobre 2006)(A . Cadili) 805 .

Per le abbreviazioni si utilizza l’Abkürzungsverzeichnis della Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Berlin-New York 21994 .

Sommario e indice degli articoli vengono pubblicati in Historical Abstracts.

CrSt 1/2011


Jürgen Miethke
Le università e il concilio di Basilea

The universities and their representatives played a significant role in the “reform councils” of the 15th century, particularly at the council of Basel (1431-1449), where hundreds of Church leaders gathered and lived together for a long period of time. In this essay the author addresses three issues: the reasons and the circumstances of the participation of the universities at the councils; the concrete aspects of the sending of the delegations from the universities, its costs and the experiences of the participants at the council; the impact and the significance of the contribution of the university intellectuals during the council of Basel.

Ronaldo Vainfas
Subversión del catolicismo en las idola- trías indigenas: la Santidad tupinambá y el Taqui Ongoy peruano, siglo XVI 

The article examines two Indian millenarian movements during the sixteenth century, comparing the indigenous Santidade, in Brazil, and the Taqui Ongoy, in Peru. Both cases are related to the issues of the idolatries, considered a form of sociocultural resistance against the Iberian colonization. In this way, the essay considers the pioneering contributions proposed by Serge Gruzinsky in his La Colonización del imaginário (1988) and also the concept of primitive millenarism, sustained by Mircea Eliade.

Paulina Numhauser
¿Contradicciones en la política de evangelización en el Perú colonial del siglo XVI? Algunas consideraciones 

The Castilian crown owned the patronage rights over the Church in the conquered territories of the West Indies. Nevertheless, one can observe that, although the monarchy officially continued to sustain the patronage arrangement with the church, they disagreed upon the extent to which the conversion process was implemented. This article analyzes the apparently exceptional case of Potosi, and discusses briefly the relationship that existed between power and religion, which would delineate the tendencies of the process of the Christianization of the Americas.

Antonio Acosta
Evangelización e intereses económicos en la colonización de la América española . Perú, siglos XVI y XVII

The article analyzes the contradictions in the pastoral planning of the Catholic Church in Peru in the 16th and 17th centuries in terms of religious objectives on one side, and of colonial interests in which the Church had a stake on the other side. These contradictions emerged both on personal and institutional levels and they sparked conflicts with the natives. In the end, these contradictions and behaviors delayed and hindered the work of evangelization in Peru.


Achille Erba
La Bibbia nella Chiesa da Leone XIII al concilio Vaticano II 

The article offers a critical reading of the book by M. Gilbert, Il Pontifi- cio Istituto Biblico: Cento anni di storia (1909-2009), Roma 2009. This article asks some questions about the consequences of the end of the exegetical project of J.-M. Lagrange and the circumstances of the first years of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, during the years of the pontifi- cate of Pius X and his apologetical doctrinal policy.

Pier Cesare Bori
Violenza cristiana e violenza buddhista in Ricredetevi! (1904) di Lev Tolstoj 

Repent! (Odumajtes’) was written by Lev Tolstoy in 1904 at the beginning of the war between Russia and Japan, and it conveys a strong rejection of the war. Most interesting is his denunciation and condemnation not only of the Christian Orthodox support, but also of the Japanese Buddhist propaganda in favour of the war.

Americo Miranda
Pax Romana, non “mussoliniana”: il ruolo di un’organizzazione internazionalista cattolica tra le due guerre 

In a memo of Msgr. Pizzardo of January 1934, it is apparent that Pius XI was ironical about the international organization Pax Romana – “Ro- mana” in the sense of Christian Rome and not Mussolini’s Rome. Piz- zardo defined the goals of Pax Romana in these terms: support for the universal role of Rome, implying a bond of solidarity between peoples and opposed to the pagan identity created by the Fascist regime; the realization of an international ideal, though avoiding any labeling close to the kind of internationalism advocated by liberalism and secularism; the permanence of a pacifist perspective and alternative to militarism, after the failure of the Conference of disarmament of Geneva. The pope’s concern was a sign of his attention to the international scenario and to the future commitment of Catholicism to internationalism.

Emanuele Curzel
Quindici anni di Quaderni di storia religiosa 

The article presents the first 15 years of the journal “Quaderni di Storia religiosa”: the structure of the publication, its subjects, the spirit of its creators, and finally the relationship between the objectives that were announced at the moment of its foundation and the results.

Massimo Bray, Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, Tullio Gregory
Presentazione del Dizionario del sapere storico-religioso del Novecento 

Bartholomeos I, Enzo Bianchi, Manlio Sodi, İlber Ortayli,
Interventi della conferenza internazionale sui recenti studi sui concili, Istanbul 1° ottobre 2010 


Maurice Casey, The Solution to the ‘Son of Man’ Problem (A. Gianto) 251; Martin Hengel, Anna M. Schwemer, Jesus und das Judentum (A. Wucherpfenning) 254; Maria Cristina Pennacchio, Propheta insaniens, L’esegesi patristica di Osea tra profezia e storia (A. Canellis) 259; Ga- briele Boccaccini (ed.), Enoch and Qumran Origins . New Light on a For- gotten Connection (M. Settembrini) 262; Isabella Sandwell, Religious identity in late antiquity . Greeks, Jews and Christians in Antioch (S. Margutti) 267; Pamphilus von Caesarea, Apologia pro Origene – Apo- logie für Origenes (C. Zamagni) 270; Fabrizio Vecoli, Il sole e il fango . Puro e impuro tra i padri del deserto (G. Canedi) 272; Byzantine Or- thodoxies . Papers from the Thirty-sixth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, ed . by Andrew Louth, Augustine Casiday (C. Crimi) 277; Mistici bizantini, a cura di Antonio Rigo (R.M. Parrinello) 280; Marco Toti, Aspetti storico-religiosi del metodo di orazione esicasta (V.S. Severino) 285; Le parole della mistica . Problemi teorici e situazione storiografica per la composizione di un repertorio di testi, Atti dell’VIII seminario di storia e teologia della mistica della Fondazione Ezio Franceschini (Genova, 6 febbraio 2006), con una lista di autori e testi della mistica dell’Occidente tra XI e XVIII secolo, a cura di Francesco Vermigli (S. Serventi) 288; Barbara Faes de Mottoni, Figure e motivi della contemplazione nelle teologie medievali (S. Serventi) 293; Offices, écrit et papauté, études réunies par Armand Jamme et Olivier Poncet (T. di Carpegna Falconieri) 296; Clero, economia e contabilità in Europa: tra Medioevo ed età contemporanea, a cura di Roberto Di Pietra e Fiorenzo Landi (M.T. Fattori) 303; Luigi M. de Palma, Il Frate Cavaliere . Il tipo ideale del Giovannita fra medioevo ed età moderna (L. Russo) 306; Jean Gaudemet, Formation du droit canonique et gouvernement de l’Église de l’Antiquité à l’âge classique (D. Moreau) 308; Peter Rietbergen, Power and Religion in Baroque Rome . Barberini Cultural Policies (I. Fosi) 316; Gerardo del Pozo Abejón, La Iglesia y la libertad religiosa (H. Raguer) 319; El modernismo a la vuelta de un siglo, ed. Santiago Casas (G. Losi- to) 325; Federico M. Requena, Católicos, devociones y sociedad durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la Segunda República . La Obra del Amor Misericordioso en España (1922-1936) (R. De Carli) 339; Peter Hünermann (Hrsg.), Daz Zweite Vatikanische Konzil und die Zeichen der Zeit heute (S. Pié-Ninot) 341; Reforming the Church before Moder- nity . Patterns, Problems and Approaches, ed. by Christopher M. Bellitto and Louis I. Hamilton (K. Ganzer) 345; Massimo Borghesi (a cura di), Caro collega ed amico, Lettere di Etienne Gilson ad Augusto Del Noce (F. Michel) 348; Daniel G. Groody (ed.), The Option for the Poor in Christian Theology (S. Silva) 351.


G. Bedouelle, J.-L. Bruguès, P. Becquart, L’Église et la sexualité . Repères historiques et regards actuel (L. Pozzi)

Libri ricevuti

Per le abbreviazioni si utilizza l’Abkürzungsverzeichnis della Theologi- sche Realenzyklopädie, Berlin-New York 21994.

Sommario e indice degli articoli vengono pubblicati in Historical Abstracts .