crst 2015

CrSt 3/2015

Giuseppe Bartolozzi
L’ομοουσιος nel III secolo. Note critiche sulla questione dei due Dionigi e il concilio di Antiochia del 268

It can be said that there are not valid reasons to assert that Dionisius of Alexandria’s adversaries were moderate Monarchians, who would have used the term ὁμοουσιος to deny somehow the subsistence to the Logos. Instead, such adversaries might be Alexandrian believers that had used ὁμοουσιος to state that the Logos shared the Father’s divinity, as shown by the examples brought forth by Dionisius of Alexandria, through which he interprets the trinitarian use of the term. Concerning the eventuality of a sentence against the ὁμοουσιος in the council of Antioch of 268, with respect to the doctrine of Paul of Samosata, what is reported by Ilarius could be but a misunder- standing of what the Homoeousians wanted to assert appealing to the statement of that council, wich, against Paul’s doctrine, had strengthened the concept of subsistence of Logos using not only hypostasis but also ousia: the ὁμοουσιος, intended by the Homoeousians as division of the paternal ousia, would have then compromised the statement that the Logos existed in his own specifc ousia.

Eleonora Rava
Allison Clark Thurber, Recluse: due casi a confronto (Siena e Pisa)

Voluntary urban reclusion in late medieval Italian cities remains a feld of research yet to be fully investigated. The phenomenon has ancient roots in early Christianity but, in the late Middle Ages, acquired previously unknown dimensions or, at least, visibility. This paper compares the results of research conducted by Allison Clark Thurber on Siena and of Eleonora Rava on Pisa, highlighting in both cases the unique characteristics of the phenomenon within each city, as well as the nature of the relationship among reclusion, local community, and municipal institutions. Despite the different documentary sources and contrasting attention civil institutions gave to recluses, both cities demonstrated varying types and degrees of the phenomenon of voluntary urban reclusion.

Silvia Cristofori
Costantino l’africano. Il progetto politico- religioso di Charles Lavigerie per l’Africa centrale (1878- 1885)

This article analyzes the political-religious project that Charles Lavigerie (founder of the White Fathers Missionary Society, 1868) worked out for the evangelization of Equatorial Africa. The aim is to investigate the ideology of Christianitas in the context of the Scramble for Africa and in the background of the coeval racializing and ethnicizing European interpretations of African societies. In this regard the analysis of his project shows how Lavigerie conceived the evangelization of Africa as laying on the basis of a Constantinian pattern of conversion, planning to found an African Christian Kingdom independent from European imperialist powers. Consequently, the article highlights the peculiar relationship that Lavigerie established, through a Catholic vision of the civilization of Africa, between ‘African culture’ and Christian universality.


Marco La Loggia
Les israélites du pluralisme aux ortho- doxies: introduction et notes sur certains travaux de Daniel Boyarin Recent researches on the origins of Christianity made by D. Boyarin, Professor at Berkley, highlighted that the differences Jewish and Christian apologetics present, have often been built in order to distinguish and fnally to oppose one another. Judaism and Christianity are born as ‘twins’ related by the hip, according to Boyarin. There is a constitutive difference, resulting from an asymmetrical understanding of Judaism. This article synthesizes the uniqueness of Boyarin’s researches and highlights how the ‘Boyarin method’ enabled him to renew his reading of some founding texts of both Judaism and Christianity. The beginning of the Common Era’s historical and theological complexity will be explored. Within this context, this also means discovering a far-off world, where religious identities were more of a hybrid identity and were far from the distinctly different identifes they think they are endowed with nowadays. And within this ‘new’ conceptual universe, Jesus of Nazareth might well be the ardent defendant of Jewish Law and not its feared critic.

Martin Madar
An Alternative Middle Position: The Con- tribution of Joseph A. Komonchak to the Hermeneutics of Vatican II The article presents, analyzes, and evaluates the contribution of Joseph A.

Komonchak to the ongoing debate over the proper interpretation of Vatican II. The article is organized around three issues of the conciliar hermeneutics which Komonchak has addressed: (1) the responsibility of the council for the collapse of pre-Vatican II Catholicism; (2) the continuity and discontinuity of Vatican II with the tradition of the church; and (3) the dynamics between the «letter» and the «spirit» of the council. The author argues that Komonchak’s alternative middle position with regard to the hermeneutics of the council is not constructed on the theological data alone, but is also a result of his engagement with the social sciences.

CrSt 2/2015

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Giuseppe Ruggieri
Forma evangelii – forma ecclesiae. Editoriale

Mark Sheridan
«Segregati a credentium turbis». Historical and theological reflections on ecclesial aspects of monastic origins

In his eighteenth conference John Cassian seems to describe the origin of monasticism as a «reform» movement in reaction to the growing laxity of the church, a reform that he places, however, close to the apostolic age. His phrase, «they gradually separated themselves from the crowds of believers» in its context of a description of the growing laxity of the early church seems to suggest that the early monks were the true church over against the crowds of believers. Cassian was primarily a theologian rather than a historian. Nevertheless this passage raises very interesting questions both of history and historiography as well as questions of theology and ideology. This article seeks to examine the questions of history and historiography as well as those of theology and ideology.

Kurt-Victor Selge
Valdes von Lyon und Franz von Assisi und ihre Nachwirkung in der ‘abendländischen’ Christentumsgeschichte. Einige Überlegungen fünfzig Jahre danach (nach meinen ersten Wortmeldungen zu ihrem Verständnis: 1961 und 1966)

The article retraces the research path of the author, who dedicated his carreer to the study of Waldism, Franciscanism, the medieval pauperist movements and their consequences for the history of Christianity during the 15th and 16th century, focusing on the religious cleavage caused by Luther and the Protestant Reform

Roberto Lambertini
«Idem quod evangelium Christi». Interpretazioni dell’identità tra Regola francescana e Vangelo da Olivi a Clareno

The paper deals with a well-known issue of the controversy about the interpretation of the Franciscan Rule between the end of the XIII century and the beginning of the XIV: the claim that the Franciscan Rule is identical with the Gospel. Focussing in particular on Commentaries on the Rule, the author tries to show that such a claim was not only controversial (as scholarship has pointed out already long time ago), but also allowed for different understandings, so that its supporters did not always concur with one another about the exact implications of this identity.

Matthieu Arnold
Église et proclamation de l’Évangile selon Martin Luther

The proclamation of the Word of God or Gospel, the Word preached, has a capital importance in Luther’s ecclesiology. From his writings in the 1520s right up to his treatises “The Councils and the Church” (1539) and “Against John the Fool” (1541), he stresses this proclamation, even making it a mark or sign of the Church. It is a preaching which comforts, which pushes believers to holiness and which should be done in a bold manner: the “true Church” neither doubts nor wavers.

Marcello Garzaniti
Michele Trivolis/Massimo il Greco (1470 circa-1555/1556). Una moderna adesione al vangelo nella tradizione ortodossa

In Russia the figure of the Athonite monk Maximus was generally interpreted in relation to traditional Orthodox values and, in particular, to his anti-Renaissance position. This study aims to read his biography in the light of the reforms taking place during the sixteenth century in Europe, and to highlight his role as educator. The ecclesiastic hierarchy tried to come to terms with Maximus’s authoritative personality, making the most of his work to counter the influence of the Western world, both Catholic and Protestant. At the same time they kept him under strict control, while he was still alive, and intervened harshly against anything that might undermine the framework of the church and the monastic tradition, in which the seeds sown by the Athonite monk still continued to germinate.

Roberto Osculati
L’evangelo e le riforme ecclesiastiche del XVI secolo nella storiografia di Gottfried Arnold

Gottfried Arnold had a severe and critical knowledge of a great number of theological works and spiritual documents of the XVI and XVII centuries, in particular of protestant Germany. His aim was to find in the experiences of singular persons or different religious groups the active, interior and practical presence of the original words and deed of Christ. The Christian faith, more than a pure doctrine or a ecclesiastical impersonal structure, is a imitation of him under the direction of his Spirit. The conflict between law and Spirit is active in the reformed churches of central Europe, not only in the old roman Babylon. The beginning of Luther as a teacher and missionary of the Scripture and his Spirit was often forgotten. Many his disciples were not able to accept the freedom, the peace, the love of the Gospel and preferred an apparent security in a new edition of a cold, superficial, authoritarian faith. The aid of the civil powers became necessary. But the words and the examples of Christ could always and anew find their witnesses, if a very disciple of him accept the apocalyptical condition of his life and death.

Pierre Gisel
La dialectique de l’Évangile et de l’Église chez Karl Barth. Une surdétermination christologique finalement homogénéisante?

Barth illustrates a radicality: he analyses the Church by considering what she is supposed to be, the expression of the lordship of Christ or a living Gospel. The Church cannot rely on historical foundations neither by considering her-self as the continuation of this foundations nor by maintaining a “salvation good”. She must instead always newly convert or adapt her-self to a Truth in discontinuity with historical trends. As a matter of fact, Barth strongly differentiates the State’s responsibility from the Church’s one. The present article discusses the former differentiation in light of Barmen’s declaration during the Nazi period. It also shows Barth’s mind change after 1945 when he emphasized the similarities between the State and the Church, both seeking to improve human and social welfare, however differently. Globally, Barth does not consider the Church as an institution evolving in a differentiated social game. In conclusion, this article invites us to think together about an heterogeneous Truth and about historical insertion.

Paul Philibert, O. P.
Chenu’s Vision of the Gospel and Church Institutions

M.-D. Chenu was a great medieval historian and a theologian focused on contemporary pastoral concerns. His writings drew upon a dialectic between the absolute authority of the word of God and human needs arising from transformations in society (the ‘signs of the times’). His life demonstrated the conflict between the essentialist Neo-Thomism mandated by the Roman Curia and ‘ressourcement’ theology (a liberating expansion of theological concerns drawn from Scripture and early Christian sources). Censored by the Church in 1942 for his daring exploration of new pathways in theology, Chenu much later had significant influence as a theologian at Vatican II. He proposed to construct a ‘new Christendom’ out of the interplay of the primacy of the word of God and attentive concern for the signs of the times.


I volti moderni di Gesù. Arte Filosofia Storia, a cura di I. Adinolfi, G. Goisis (D. Dainese); New Perspectives Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. by E. Carlebach, J.J. Schacter (M. La Loggia); G.H. Van Kooten, Paul’s Anthropology in Context. The Image of God, Assimilation to God, and Tripartite Man in Ancient Judaism, Ancient Philosophy and Early Christianity (M. Tubiana); pp. 445-463.

A. Barzanò, Il cristianesimo nell’impero romano da Tiberio a Costantino (A. Sena); C. Quaranta, Marcello II Cervini (1501-1555). Riforma della Chiesa, concilio, Inquisizione (W.V. Hudon); J.B. Vilar, La diócesis de Cartagena en el siglo XX. Una aproximación histórico-sociológica (G.L. Betti); pp. 464-471.

R. Cerny-Werner, Vatikanische Ostpolitk und die DDR (M. Faggioli); O. Rota, Essai sur le philosémitisme catholique entre le premier et le second Vatican. Un parcours dans la modernité chrétienne (M. La Loggia); P. Annicchino, Esportare la libertà religiosa. Il modello americano nell’arena globale (F. Cadeddu) pp. 472-478

CrSt 1/2015




Philippe Luisier
Evolution historique de la gouvernance dans l’Église copte. Un aperçu

The geographical lay-out of Egypt and the centralization of government in the hands of the prefect of Alexandria explain why until Demetrius (182- 232) there was only one bishop in the country. The dioceses increased in number during the third century and there are many of them in the time of Athanasius but the bishop of Alexandria wields an authority which is unparalleled in the other churches. That is still true today in the case of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch. That kind of “governance” did not need any regular synodal activity and the Holy Synod, for which an important role was reserved, is a relatively recent institution.

Gury Schneider-Ludorff
Die Entwicklung der Governance “in den lutherischen Kirchen in Deutschland”

The article traces the development of governance in the Lutheran churches in Germany since the Reformation. He illustrates this by the long tradition of the “Landesherrliches Kirchenregiment” – the intermediate state of wordly ruler’s authorities over the church – which started in the time of the Reformation until 1918. The article traces then to today’s relationship between church and state in Germany and the decision-making structures within the Lutheran churches in Germany (VELKD) after second World war.

Jürgen Miethke
“Einheit der Kirche” in spätmittelalterlicher Ekklesiologie. Ein Probierstein für die Ökumene heute

In modern times a plurality of religious communities are living together within a pluralist constitutional state, which is respectful for each of them. Otherwise in the middle ages: In the same manner as the social-political order of the kingdom presented the political structure of the whole community so presented the church its religious order. There was no plurality of different religious groups within the same people, only strangers and guests could be different. Therefore neither an interreligious dialogue nor an interconfessional ‘ecumenism’ could develop, particularly since different Christian ‘confessions’ are only a modern phenomenon. Thinking on ‘unity’ and ‘union’ of the church did only consider the problems of a ‘schism’ and or of heretical deviance. The essay shall persecute the criterias of unity in late medieval ecclesiology, mainly in later scholasticism from Thomas Aquinas to Nicolas of Cues. The philosophical instruments are taken into account, in order to look at the preconditions of unionist debates. Very seldom there we can see an opening for different attitudes and less still pluralistic freedom of organization. The medieval theory of unity for church and state does not seem to be a prospective way for future ecumenism

Dries Bosschaert
Gustave Thils’ Théologie des réalités terrestres in Dialogue with Marrou, Maritain and de Montcheuil. Louvain Theology at the Crossroads of Christianity and Culture

The present article argues that the Louvain theologian Gustave Thils found the stepping-stones for his ‘theology of the temporal’ in the works of the prominent French Christian thinkers Henri-Irenée Marrou, Jacques Maritain and Yves de Montcheuil. It first presents the thought of these three authors on the Christian significance of temporal reality, and then discusses how Thils, who was inspired by their view on the relationship between Christianity and temporal realities, attempted to transcend their thought by combining them in a synthetic theological system. As such, in the volumes “Théologie des réalités terrestres” and “Théologie et réalité sociale”, Thils developed a theory to reflect upon earthly realities with a particular focus on revelation, as well as a method that could be applied by the ordinary faithful to contemplate their everyday activities. This all-encompassing approach might be considered the elaboration of a Christian anthropology that aims to reflect upon and transform the temporal realm in a Christian sense.

Enrico Galavotti
Il contubernale. Loris Francesco Capovilla e la memoria di san Giovanni XXIII

The meeting with Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in 1953 marked a radical turn in the life of the Venetian priest Loris Francesco Capovilla, who was first secretary of Roncalli as Patriarch of Venice and then as Pope John XXIII. The relationship between the two was not interrupted by the death of the pope in 1963. Capovilla, executor of Roncalli’s testament and custodian of his archive, began became a frequent lecturer and publisher of Roncalli’s texts thus making an essential contribution to the knowledge of John XXIII and breaking new ground in the tradition of the management of the personal archives of a pope. This activity, carried out for half a century, is divided into several stages, marked by the evolution of the ecclesial memory of John XXIII – a memory initially exalted, later contrasted and subject to an attempt to make pope John innocuous, until the canonization celebrated by Pope Francis in April 2014.


Federico Ruozzi
Don Lorenzo Milani: fonti e studi 2007- 2015. Bollettino bibliografico

With this review of the publications on Fr. Lorenzo Milani, the John XXIII Foundation for Religious Studies inaugurates a literature overview that will be updated regularly with the aim to give an account of the many books and articles published every year on the Florentine priest. This is necessary not only because of the many works in progress on Fr. Milani, but also for the task that was entrusted in 1973-1974 to the John XXIII Institute for Religious Studies by Milani’s mother, Alice Weiss, when she decided to donate the Milani archival fund to the research institute in Bologna so that it would look after the legacy of this key figure in the history of 20th century Italian Catholicism and study his life and work.