L’ομοουσιος nel III secolo. Note critiche sulla questione dei due Dionigi e il concilio di Antiochia del 268
It can be said that there are not valid reasons to assert that Dionisius of Alexandria’s adversaries were moderate Monarchians, who would have used the term ὁμοουσιος to deny somehow the subsistence to the Logos. Instead, such adversaries might be Alexandrian believers that had used ὁμοουσιος to state that the Logos shared the Father’s divinity, as shown by the examples brought forth by Dionisius of Alexandria, through which he interprets the trinitarian use of the term. Concerning the eventuality of a sentence against the ὁμοουσιος in the council of Antioch of 268, with respect to the doctrine of Paul of Samosata, what is reported by Ilarius could be but a misunder- standing of what the Homoeousians wanted to assert appealing to the statement of that council, wich, against Paul’s doctrine, had strengthened the concept of subsistence of Logos using not only hypostasis but also ousia: the ὁμοουσιος, intended by the Homoeousians as division of the paternal ousia, would have then compromised the statement that the Logos existed in his own specifc ousia.
Allison Clark Thurber, Recluse: due casi a confronto (Siena e Pisa)
Voluntary urban reclusion in late medieval Italian cities remains a feld of research yet to be fully investigated. The phenomenon has ancient roots in early Christianity but, in the late Middle Ages, acquired previously unknown dimensions or, at least, visibility. This paper compares the results of research conducted by Allison Clark Thurber on Siena and of Eleonora Rava on Pisa, highlighting in both cases the unique characteristics of the phenomenon within each city, as well as the nature of the relationship among reclusion, local community, and municipal institutions. Despite the different documentary sources and contrasting attention civil institutions gave to recluses, both cities demonstrated varying types and degrees of the phenomenon of voluntary urban reclusion.
Costantino l’africano. Il progetto politico- religioso di Charles Lavigerie per l’Africa centrale (1878- 1885)
This article analyzes the political-religious project that Charles Lavigerie (founder of the White Fathers Missionary Society, 1868) worked out for the evangelization of Equatorial Africa. The aim is to investigate the ideology of Christianitas in the context of the Scramble for Africa and in the background of the coeval racializing and ethnicizing European interpretations of African societies. In this regard the analysis of his project shows how Lavigerie conceived the evangelization of Africa as laying on the basis of a Constantinian pattern of conversion, planning to found an African Christian Kingdom independent from European imperialist powers. Consequently, the article highlights the peculiar relationship that Lavigerie established, through a Catholic vision of the civilization of Africa, between ‘African culture’ and Christian universality.
Marco La Loggia
Les israélites du pluralisme aux ortho- doxies: introduction et notes sur certains travaux de Daniel Boyarin Recent researches on the origins of Christianity made by D. Boyarin, Professor at Berkley, highlighted that the differences Jewish and Christian apologetics present, have often been built in order to distinguish and fnally to oppose one another. Judaism and Christianity are born as ‘twins’ related by the hip, according to Boyarin. There is a constitutive difference, resulting from an asymmetrical understanding of Judaism. This article synthesizes the uniqueness of Boyarin’s researches and highlights how the ‘Boyarin method’ enabled him to renew his reading of some founding texts of both Judaism and Christianity. The beginning of the Common Era’s historical and theological complexity will be explored. Within this context, this also means discovering a far-off world, where religious identities were more of a hybrid identity and were far from the distinctly different identifes they think they are endowed with nowadays. And within this ‘new’ conceptual universe, Jesus of Nazareth might well be the ardent defendant of Jewish Law and not its feared critic.
An Alternative Middle Position: The Con- tribution of Joseph A. Komonchak to the Hermeneutics of Vatican II The article presents, analyzes, and evaluates the contribution of Joseph A.
Komonchak to the ongoing debate over the proper interpretation of Vatican II. The article is organized around three issues of the conciliar hermeneutics which Komonchak has addressed: (1) the responsibility of the council for the collapse of pre-Vatican II Catholicism; (2) the continuity and discontinuity of Vatican II with the tradition of the church; and (3) the dynamics between the «letter» and the «spirit» of the council. The author argues that Komonchak’s alternative middle position with regard to the hermeneutics of the council is not constructed on the theological data alone, but is also a result of his engagement with the social sciences.
Forma evangelii – forma ecclesiae. Editoriale
The article retraces the research path of the author, who dedicated his carreer to the study of Waldism, Franciscanism, the medieval pauperist movements and their consequences for the history of Christianity during the 15th and 16th century, focusing on the religious cleavage caused by Luther and the Protestant Reform
«Idem quod evangelium Christi». Interpretazioni dell’identità tra Regola francescana e Vangelo da Olivi a Clareno
The paper deals with a well-known issue of the controversy about the interpretation of the Franciscan Rule between the end of the XIII century and the beginning of the XIV: the claim that the Franciscan Rule is identical with the Gospel. Focussing in particular on Commentaries on the Rule, the author tries to show that such a claim was not only controversial (as scholarship has pointed out already long time ago), but also allowed for different understandings, so that its supporters did not always concur with one another about the exact implications of this identity.
The proclamation of the Word of God or Gospel, the Word preached, has a capital importance in Luther’s ecclesiology. From his writings in the 1520s right up to his treatises “The Councils and the Church” (1539) and “Against John the Fool” (1541), he stresses this proclamation, even making it a mark or sign of the Church. It is a preaching which comforts, which pushes believers to holiness and which should be done in a bold manner: the “true Church” neither doubts nor wavers.
In Russia the figure of the Athonite monk Maximus was generally interpreted in relation to traditional Orthodox values and, in particular, to his anti-Renaissance position. This study aims to read his biography in the light of the reforms taking place during the sixteenth century in Europe, and to highlight his role as educator. The ecclesiastic hierarchy tried to come to terms with Maximus’s authoritative personality, making the most of his work to counter the influence of the Western world, both Catholic and Protestant. At the same time they kept him under strict control, while he was still alive, and intervened harshly against anything that might undermine the framework of the church and the monastic tradition, in which the seeds sown by the Athonite monk still continued to germinate.
Gottfried Arnold had a severe and critical knowledge of a great number of theological works and spiritual documents of the XVI and XVII centuries, in particular of protestant Germany. His aim was to find in the experiences of singular persons or different religious groups the active, interior and practical presence of the original words and deed of Christ. The Christian faith, more than a pure doctrine or a ecclesiastical impersonal structure, is a imitation of him under the direction of his Spirit. The conflict between law and Spirit is active in the reformed churches of central Europe, not only in the old roman Babylon. The beginning of Luther as a teacher and missionary of the Scripture and his Spirit was often forgotten. Many his disciples were not able to accept the freedom, the peace, the love of the Gospel and preferred an apparent security in a new edition of a cold, superficial, authoritarian faith. The aid of the civil powers became necessary. But the words and the examples of Christ could always and anew find their witnesses, if a very disciple of him accept the apocalyptical condition of his life and death.
In modern times a plurality of religious communities are living together within a pluralist constitutional state, which is respectful for each of them. Otherwise in the middle ages: In the same manner as the social-political order of the kingdom presented the political structure of the whole community so presented the church its religious order. There was no plurality of different religious groups within the same people, only strangers and guests could be different. Therefore neither an interreligious dialogue nor an interconfessional ‘ecumenism’ could develop, particularly since different Christian ‘confessions’ are only a modern phenomenon. Thinking on ‘unity’ and ‘union’ of the church did only consider the problems of a ‘schism’ and or of heretical deviance. The essay shall persecute the criterias of unity in late medieval ecclesiology, mainly in later scholasticism from Thomas Aquinas to Nicolas of Cues. The philosophical instruments are taken into account, in order to look at the preconditions of unionist debates. Very seldom there we can see an opening for different attitudes and less still pluralistic freedom of organization. The medieval theory of unity for church and state does not seem to be a prospective way for future ecumenism