crst 2019

CrSt 3/2019


Indice del numero 3, 2019, settembre-dicembre

Enrico Norelli
L’«Ascensione di Isaia» dipende dalle lettere di Paolo? Una discussione con Richard Bauckham e Tobias Nicklas

Until recently, research on the Ascension of Isaiah could not establish whether (some of) Paul’s letters were among the sources of that ancient Christian apocryphon. Ascension 11,34 reproduces a sentence quoted as Scripture in 1Cor 2,9, but that passage, contained only in two late ancient or medieval translations stemming from a revised textual form, is almost certainly an interpolation. In two articles, published respectively in 2015 and 2016, Tobias Nicklas and Richard Bauckham endeavoured to show, in different ways, that some passages or themes from Pauline or Deutero-Pauline epistles (mainly, but not only, Phil 2,5- 11) were tacitly used by that author, who inserted them into his/her own ideological framework. The present article checks their methods and arguments. The outcome is that they cannot stand a thorough examination, so that an influence of the Pauline correspondence on the Ascension remains as yet unproven

Antonio Gerace
Lovanio nel XVI secolo, tra agostinismo e molinismo

Scholarship generally links the 16th-century Leuven Faculty of Theology to Augustinism. By contrast, the change of the chair of Sacred Scriptures in Leuven, from the Augustinist Michel Baius to the Molinist Thomas Stapleton, reveals a far more complex theological milieu. They represent only two extremes of a wider exegetical spectrum, which also included a moderate Augustinism, that of Cornelius Jansen the Elder. By analyzing key passages taken from the commentaries on the Gospels by Jan Hessels – Baius’ disciple –, Jansen and Stapleton, different exegetical approaches will be shown within the broader context of the de auxiliis controversy.

Simone Maghenzani
Inquisire Porta Pia: i protestanti a Roma e il S. Ufficio all’indomani dell’Unità

ten written using sources belonging exclusively to the Protestant Churches, sometimes without taking into account the documents of the Roman Congregations. Thanks to the recent availability of archival material (for example, the opening of the Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith), the article elucidates the role played by the Holy Office in the control of Protestant preaching in Rome and the Lazio region in the 1870s. By studying reports and abjurations, the essay focuses on the Inquisition’s strategies of control, on its networks and on its handling of anti-Protestant fears in its attempt to bring converts back to Catholicism. On the one hand, the article reveals the major fears of the Curia at the time, those that led to identify Protestantism with Mazzinianism, Freemasonry and social activism. On the other hand, the essay sheds new light on the social profiles of those who joined the new Protestant churches.

Isabella Adinolfi
Necessità e libertà. Simone Weil tra pensiero greco, gnosi e vangelo

What lies at the heart of Simone Weil’s existential and spiritual journey is the view of a world and a history dominated by force. The Greeks understood this perfectly, and illustrated it in their Iliad, in their tragedies and in Plato’s reflections on the misfortune to which everything is subjected. Yet, they also glimpsed the presence of signs of an absolute Good in the world and throughout history, a Good radically different to everything that is subject to necessity and force, and they went so far as to attempt to build bridges that might connect the world and Good. Weil believed that all traces of this were lost after Plato but then re-emerged in the Gospels, Gnosticism and Catharism. One decisive point in such a construction is the intuition that Good create by retreating to make room for the creature. So, as far as the creature wishes to exist, it finds itself within a context of injustice, far from God and subjected to necessity and misfortune. But, if it comprehends that the Good which inhabits it involves de-creating itself in order to correspond to God opens up new possibilities for a history removed from necessity, a history that is free and good.

Dries Bosschaert
Discerning Sports as a Sign of the Times: The Vatican II Fathers’ Changing Mentality on Leisure Activities (1959-1965)

The present contribution addresses the integration of the theme of sport into the texts of Vatican II. It will do so by focusing on the way in which the theme was addressed by the Council Fathers during the preparation, and the brief period, of the council (1959-1965) on the basis of the nearly hundred references to sport in the authorized Acta et Documenta and the Acta Synodalia, thus drawing a picture of its appearance in the preparatory and conciliar phases respectively, and its eventual integration in Gaudium et spes 61.

Giuseppe Ruggieri
The Ruptures of History as Challenge to Ecumenism

By “ruptures of historyµ we mean those situations in which the shared dignity of human beings before God is placed in jeopardy and the Churches come to be questioned by examining the gospel of Jesus Christ. That is to say, when the common search for Christian unity, seeking to overcome dogmatic differences, is challenged at a deeper level than that of dogmas and is called upon to probe into the questions presented by the gospel itself. The article develops this problem by analysing the cases of Dietrich Bonhoeffer in the 1930s, of the Kairos Document issued by South African Christians in 1985 and of the Latin American Churches in 1968.

Giuseppe Battelli
Storiografia, impegno civile, ispirazione religiosa. Gli studi su Ettore Passerin d’Entrèves a trent’anni dalla scomparsa

The following pages provide a succinct overview of the critical writings dedicated to the Italian historian Ettore Passerin d’Entrèves, his historiographical production and his academic career. Born in Turin in 1914, into an aristocratic family from the Aosta Valley, Passerin studied in his native city and took part in the Italian civil war in 1944-1945. He taught at the University of Pisa from 1948 to 1961, at the Catholic University in Milan from 1961 to 1965 and at the University of Turin from 1961 to 1985. He died in 1990. A historian of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, particular attention being paid to Jansenism, Catholic liberalism and Italian nation building, he adopted his own perspective on the history of ideas or the history of culture. In spite of his Catholic profession of faith, he was always rigorously committed to the use of a critical historical method.


Massimo Faggioli
Vatican II: Bibliographical Survey 2016-2019

This essay reviews the recent literature on Vatican II published during the years 2016-2019. The first part of the review focuses on the effect of Francis’ pontificate on the theological and historical debate on the council, while the second part lists the studies and reception of the final documents of Vatican II together with some other particular issues (Vatican II and women, the global-political reception of the council). The third part of the essay advances some hypotheses for the future path of research on Vatican II.


Joseph A. Komonchak
L. Figoureux, Henri de Lubac et le Concile Vatican II (1960-1965), Brepols 2017


Jesus Handbuch, hrsg. von J. Schröter und C. Jacobi (M. Pesce) 753; Acta Cusana. Quellen zur Lebensgeschichte des Nikolaus von Kues, hrsg. von J. Helmrath und T. Woelki, Bd. II/2-4 (E. Curzel) 758; L’Université face à la mystique. Un siècle de controverses?, éd. par M. Mazzocco, F. Trémolières et G. Waterlot (G. Losito) 760;
pp. 751-763

J. Chappel, Catholic Modern. The Challenge of Totalitarianism and the Remaking of the Church (M. Faggioli) 763; J. Ellul, Vivre et penser la liberté (C. Bassac) 768; Wissenschaft – Wahrheit – Weisheit. Theologische Standortbestimmungen, hrsg. von U. Lüke und H. Peters (J. Schmiedl) 771
pp. 763-772

Libri ricevuti → link alla pagina

CrSt 2/2019



Vito Limone
Il contributo di Origene alla storia dell’uso di “ipostasi” nella teologia cristiana

The aim of this study is to explore the use of the term “hypostasisµ in Origen of Alexandria and to point out his original contribution to the formulation of the trinitarian terminology in the history of Christian theology. After considering the meanings of “hypostasisµ in Hellenistic thought, in particular in the vocabulary of the Stoics, and in the early imperial context, the article focuses on the occurrences of “hypostasisµ in Origen’s works in Greek and investigates them in the light of four core subjects: first, the relationship between hypostasis and nothingness; secondly, the correlation between essence and hypostasis; thirdly, the application of hypostasis to the individual existence of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit; and, finally, the causal interplay between free will and hypostasis, as seen in the cases of the Antichrist and the human being.

Josep Vilella Masana
La incorporación de Occidente al conflicto entre eusebianos y antieusebianos: el concilio romano de 340/341

The return of the Pro-Nicenes, whose great exponent was Athanasius, occurred shortly after the death of Constantine I and provoked an immediate offensive on the part of the Eusebians against them. Thus began a new and complex phase in the political-religious course deriving from the Arian conflict, which spread to the West and was supported by the coetaneous Constantinian emperors. We analyze here the period from the end of Athanasius’ first exile and the convocation of the Sardican Synod, whose great milestone was the general council summoned by Pope Julius in Rome. The council was celebrated with the absence of the Eusebians, exculpated the condemned Easterners and was the prelude to the episcopal assembly, arranged in Sardica by means of the powerful imperial intervention.

Giuseppe Battelli
Gli studi sul clero secolare italiano in età contemporanea. I parte: Dalle origini agli anni Sessanta del Novecento

In this first part of his contribution, whose second part will appear in «Cristianesimo nella storia», 3, 2020, the author reconstructs the development of the studies on Italian secular clergy in the period which extends from the first works of local erudition, mainly dedicated to the history of seminaries, until the period shortly after the Second World War, when this specific branch of research gained progressive attention among scholars of the history of religious phenomena. The survey will be completed by the author with the examination of studies after the nineteen-sixties and will be found in the second and final part of his contribution.

Natacha-Ingrid Tinteroff
Représentation ecclésiale des laïcs et eucharistie dans l’Église d’Angleterre

The British Reformation has sometimes been described as the unquestioned victory of laity over the clergy. Yet the question of their representation by members of their own orders at all levels of the Church’s governance was widely discussed before becoming a reality. Once this stage was reached, further debates took place in order to determine which members of the laity might be represented, then about the criteria of representation concerning both candidates to electoral functions and those elected. If a baptismal franchise alone was finally established for the electors, eucharistic representativeness was favoured for those applying for election and for the elected, owing to the “sensus fidei” generated by a regular co-participation in the Eucharist.


Maria Paiano
Diocesi e Grande guerra. Nuove prospettive di ricerca tra storia locale e “global history”

Studies on the relationship between religion and the Great War, which intensified on the occasion of its centenary, have definitively demonstrated the importance of its historical-religious aspects. They have extended in many directions, interlacing different disciplinary approaches and configuring the World War I as a laboratory in which it is possible to observe dynamics that also emerged several times later on a worldwide scale. After a brief review of these studies, the article focuses on the results of the research collected in two volumes, published in early 2018, that focus on the impact of the conflict on circumscribed territories of a Catholic majority, considered in the reference to diocesan reality and, therefore, paying a privileged (but not exclusive) attention to Catholicism: “Diocèses en guerre, 1914-1918. Entre Gott mit uns et le Dieu des arméesµ, edited by Xavier Boniface and Jean Heuclin, and “Una Chiesa in guerra. Sacrificio e mobilitazione nella diocesi di Firenze, 1911- 1928µ, by Matteo Caponi. It then highlights how both these works, while starting from a privileged local observation point, raise questions which can be inscribed in a perspective of the “global historyµ of the last two centuries and are still very relevant today.

Christoph Theobald sj
Que nous est-il permis d’espérer? L’½cuménisme: un seuil à franchir. À propos de deux ouvrages qui font date

Published respectively in 2017 and 2018, the two books on “Ecclésiologie et oecuménismeµ by Joseph Famerée and on “OEcuménisme et synodalitéµ by Hyacinte Destivelle represent a milestone because they provide a lenghty evaluation of the quest for unity, pondering future perspectives. The article presents the two ecumenical pathways which cross at such a crucial time, identifying what might be called an «ecumenical logic», based on pauline theology and in action within the great christian tradition. The latter part of the article question itself on the future of «ecumenical tradition» and addresses the question of the new paradigmatic threshold to cross.


Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Christian East, ed. by E.G. Farrugia SJ (D. Dainese, A. Alberti e A. Sirinian) 455; K. Ritari, Pilgrimage to Heaven. Eschatology and Monastic Spirituality in Early Medieval Ireland (E. Boyle) 458; E. Gallo, Vescovi, clero e Ordine francescano nel secolo XIII. Benevolenza e conflitti nelle cronache di Giordano da Giano, Tommaso da Eccleston e Salimbene de Adam (A. Gerace) 461; E. Rava, «Volens in testamento vivere». Testamenti a Pisa, 1240-1320 (G. Casagrande) 462;

Religious Minorities in Christian, Jewish and Muslim Law (Fifth to Fifteenth Centuries), ed. by N. Berend et al. (S. Ferrari) 464; Friends of God. Vernacular Literature and Religious Elites in the Rhineland and the Low Countries (1300-1500), ed. by W. Scheepsma, G. van Vliet and G. Warnar (A. Gerace) 468; R. Targoff, Renaissance Woman. The Life of Vittoria Colonna (S. Faggioli) 470;

U. Wolff, Walter Nigg. Das Jahrhundert der Heiligen. Eine Biografie (C. Chalamet) 473; P.-B. Smit, From Canonical Criticism to Ecumenical Exegesis? A Study in Biblical Hermeneutics (H.-G. Gradl) 475

CrSt 1/2019


Autorità e recezione dei concili, a cura di Giuseppe Ruggieri

Giuseppe Ruggieri

Hans-George Gradl
Paulus und Jerusalem. Zur Autorität und Wirkung des “Apostelkonzils” (Gal 2,1-21)

The article discusses the authority and the effects of the first “Apostolic Council” in Jerusalem. Even though a Gospel for the uncircumcised without the Law and a Gospel for the circumcised including the obligations of the Mosaic Law were recognized as equal, the Pauline Gospel prevailed. Different factors influenced the reception of the Council and led finally to an all in all Gentile-Christian Church. In particular, the main factors were political and sociological circumstances, the swift growth of Hellenistic congregations, the impressive engagement of charismatic figures, the theological substantiation of the Pauline Gospel and an uncomplicated feasibility of Christianity without circumcision and the Law.

Rita Lizzi Testa
L’autorità del concilio di Serdica in Occidente: testimonianze ambrosiane (epp. 30, 2-3; 72, 10)

Canons 8 and 9a-b Hess of the Council of Serdica (343 AD) meticulously regulated episcopal visits to the imperial Court. The bishops gathered there listed the “iustae causae”, for which a bishop could intercede or request indulgence, and established that not bishops, but their deacons would submit written requests to the aid of the oppressed, afflicted widows or orphans. The deacon, therefore, should have turned to the metropolitan bishop, who should have sent it to the bishop of the city, where the emperor resided, because he forwarded it to the imperial “comitatus”, possibly even requesting the help of “friends in the Palace”. Comparing Serdica’s canons with two Ambrose’s letters, we believe that the “mos sacerdotalis”, which he quoted as custom that every bishop was required to assume at the presence of the emperor, had been elaborated following the dispositions of Serdica. Since in the West, for almost two centuries, those canons were believed to have been issued at Nicea in 325, they acquired vast credit and favored the setting of protocol rules for bishops and clerics, who asked the emperor hearing.

Andrea Tilatti
Autorità dei concili. Aquileia e le sue costituzioni provinciali

Between 1282 and 1339 at least six provincial councils were celebrated in the Patriarchate of Aquileia. They were preceded by the constitutions of the papal legate, Latino Malabranca. Canons that concerning the state of the local churches were published in four councils and were received by the suffragan bishops. In 1339, a homogeneous conciliar corpus was established, which remained in force until the end of the 16th century. The present paper analyzes the contexts and the protagonists of this synodal activity and highlights the historical reasons that determined the authority and the reception of the single conciliar constitutions.

Matteo Al Kalak
L’autorità di un concilio. Trento, la sua applicazione e il suo mito

The article analyses the theme of a Council’s authority with regard to the history and application of the Council of Trent (1545-1563). The analysis is conducted, first of all, by examining the complex relationship between the sixteenth-century papacy and the instrument of the Council, looked upon with suspicion by a Roman curia that was increasingly centralized with respect to ecclesiastic dynamics. Secondly, the different times and methods of receiving the Tridentine decrees in the various states and political contexts will be shown, to conclude with their application in the various dioceses. The situation that emerges reveals the complexity of the implementation of the Council in the Catholic world and the need to distinguish, within the very concept of implementation, different levels of meaning and intervention.

Jean-François Chiron
La réception de «Pastor aeternus» chapitre IV, entre amplifications et contextualisations

Chapter IV of the constitution, “Pastor aeternus”, of the First Vatican Council was received in various ways: with justifications, amplifications and, since the period before the last Council, what we might call a contextualisation. The majority view sought not to minimise the definition but to offer an interpretation which takes into account certain factors: the historical context, official explanations, the position of the council’s minority and theological principles. This interpretation was partly received by the Second Vatican Council. However, the question of the relationship between a statement which remains that of a single minister and the faith of the whole church still remains, making the implementation of the dogma proclaimed in 1870 problematic.

Giuseppe Ruggieri
Interpretazione accrescitiva e recezione

The locution «augmentative interpretation» of Vatican II, while not found word for word in the writings of Giuseppe Dossetti, nevertheless faithfully summarizes the proposal that he considered appropriate for the reception of the council. Dossetti considered an “evolutionary” interpretation of the documents of the council necessary «because of the historical growth and the pouring of grace that take place in the very act of their fulfillment». For this reason, he hoped that, through the simple application of the final documents of the council, «gradually, without betraying their letter, but rather for a better interpretation of their spirit, there will be an increase in their literal significance, either as a result of constructive interpretations, or also as the effect of new additional acts, which are, however, to be added homogeneously in the development of the final documents».


G.G. Stroumsa, Religions d’Abraham. Histoires croisées (S. Acerbi) 169; Origeniana Undecima. Origen and Ori- genism in the History of Western Thought. Papers of the 11th International Origen Congress (Aarhus University, 26-31 August 2013), ed. by A.-C. Jacobsen (D. Pazzini) 173; T. Canella, Il peso della tolleranza. Cristianesimo antico e alterità (R. Teja) 178; A. Czortek e F. Chieli, La nascita di una diocesi nella Toscana di Leone X: Sansepolcro da borgo a città (L. Tanzini) 181; pp. 166-182

Tercer Concilio Limense (1583-1591). Edición bilingüe de los decretos, ed. por L. Martínez Ferrer (M.T. Fattori) 183; R. Corts i Blay, La qüestió catalana en l’Arxiu Secret Vaticà. De la Restauració a Primo de Rivera (1875-1923) (H. Raguer) 186; L. Meesemaecker, Louis Massignon et le langage. Le miroir sombre et la langue des larmes (M. Campanini) 192; pp. 183-193