XVIII (1997)

Lettieri G., La crisi del De doctrina christiana di Agostino, XVIII, 1-60.

Up to now, the ambiguous statements in Retractiones 2.1-4 about the sequence of the early works of Augustine’s episcopate have prevented scholars from understanding that the first, unfinished part of De doctrina christiana is based on a more archaic doctrine of justification and hermeneutics in comparison with Ad Simplicianum 1.2. This essay maintains that the composition of Ad Simpl 1.2 is the real cause of a fact hitherto absolutely underestimated, that the composition of the Ddch was interrupted and it was set aside, which in the author’ s eyes indicates a radical crisis in Augustine’s theology. On the basis of philological analysis, the author arrives at the conclusion that the traumatic and eversive revelatio of Ad Simpl 1.2 is inconsistent with the hermeneutic and soteriologicalal structure of the unfinished Ddch: in the former, and then in the Confessiones (but even in the De catechizandis rudibus or in important passages of the Contra Faustum), the hermeneutics of res per signa are replaced by the hermeneutics of the Spiritus per et ultra signa. As Ad Simpl 1.2.22 testifies unequivocally, at this point the Christian revelatio is a free act of God, absolutely ≪subjective≫, both extraordinary and not available to man: the irresistible and gratuitous divine electio only allows the lapsed freedom – always perverse and incapable of change – to convert to God and to understand the Bible. A second essay will be published shortly in this review, examining the inseparable relation between the hermeneutics and the theology of predestined grace in the Conf. and in the anti-Pelagian works, and then the reasons which will inevitably require, in the last phase of the Pelagian controversy, the recovery of the Ddch and its late completion, and a deep – not explicit but radical – retractatio of the old first part of the work.

Melloni A., I fondamenti del regime di cristianità al Lionese I (13 luglio 1245), XVIII, 61-76.

The essay examines the meaning of the theses (≪trasunti≫) presented to the Lyons Council I on the part of the Pope, to demonstrate the crimes against the privileges of the Holy See committed by Frederick II. These documents, which Innocent IV had had prepared between the third and thirteenth of July 1245, do not intend to support the thesis of the superiority of the Papacy over the Empire, but rather to assign the latter its place in Christendom: it is for this that the documents prepared by the theologians and experts in Canon law of the papal court omit the constitutum, and open with the ottonianum.

Griffin J.R., Newman and “The Philosophy of Byron”, XVIII, 77-90.

The author points out that in the Apologia, in a passage on liberalism, Newman refers to his dislike of Byron’s philosophy. He finds the reasons for this dislike in the first place in Newman’s education, before his conversion to Catholicism, in his adherence to the Oxford Movement and to the thought of J. Keble, radically hostile to the poetry and to the existential experience and politics of Byron. Later, however, on passing over to the Catholic Church, Newman himself becomes a negative model to the Anglican faithful. He was compared to Byron for that profound moral deterioration which the English Church attributed to him precisely because he became a Catholic. But also on the Catholic side there was suspicion, and accusations of Byronism were not lacking, on account of his liberal ideas.

Bravo Muñoz A.E., La buena nueva de la revolución del poncho, XVIII, 91-134.

The author believes that the greatest ≪miracle≫ of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, Patron Saint of Latin America, is the Marian liberation theology, that find expression in the poem Nican Mopohua, the Nahuatl language version of the Magnificat. Since the main task of a bishop in the service of the Kingdom of God is that of building his Church, and on the basis of that, to contribute to the construction of a new society, then from this point of view, the greatest work of mons. Leonidas Proaño is certainly the building of the Church of Riobamba (Ecuador), whose basic commitment was to the total liberation of the poor, and in particular of the indios. The author remembers the bishop and the persecutions that he and his Church have had to suffer because of their interpretation of the New Testament, and believes that, because of it, they ave made history and will remain as an example, united for ever.

Menozzi D., Gli Scritti politici di Giuseppe Dossetti, XVIII, 135-146.

The collection of the political contributions wrote by Giuseppe Dossetti from 1943 to 1951, when he abandoned the DC to devote himself to cultural activity, provides the chance to clarify some aspects of his overall position, which the debate about him in the recent Italian crisis has brought back to light in polemical or propagandistic terms, but quite misleading at the historical level. In particular the texts show him taking up the intransigent perspective offered by the Catholic University of Milan in which Dossetti had been formed; its partial correction according to the Maritainian concept of ≪new Christendom≫; the integration of the perspective of the French philosopher with an appeal to reform relating to the ecclesia.

Portier Ph., Jean-Paul II et la question du travail.Approche de la philosophie économique de l’Église catholique, XVIII, 147-174.

The economic thought of the Catholic Church has been the object, in recent years, of divergent interpretations. Some commentators, considering its defence of the private property of the means of production and its hostility to the class struggle, have assumed a ≪kinship relation≫ to the world of liberalism. Others, on the other hand, have included it in the sphere of socialism, having seen in its developments a clear adhesion to the principle of the ≪socialisation≫ of production, based on a recognition of social rights. The analysis presented here opens up a new interpretative perspective. Basing itself on the imposing Corpus which John Paul II has devoted to the ≪social question≫, it aims to show that the Pope, breaking with liberal and socialist models, indicates a singular form of socioeconomic organisation, largely indebted  to axioms, at the same time essentialist and organicist, of pre-modernity.

Alberigo G., Giuseppe Dossetti, XVIII, 249-276.

The main phases of the life of Giuseppe Dossetti are summed up in an introductory first part: a jurist from his degree from Bologna University in 1934, to the time he left his university teaching post in Canon law in 1956; a politician from his participation in the Resistance in 1943 until his leaving the Chamber of Deputies in 1952; an important figure in the writing of the Italian constitution in 1946-1947, and the creator – after the political phase – from 1952 of an Institute of theological and historical research aimed at the renovation of studies on Christianity; promoter from 1955 of a group of monastic inspiration – the ≪Piccola Famiglia dell’Annunziata≫; one who had foreseen the need for the Vatican Council II, and between 1962 and 1965 an important participant in its labours; from 1966 to 1968 Cardinal G. Lercaro’s main collaborator in the thinking out and realisation of a post-Council diocese model at Bologna. Then a pilgrimage to the East, from India to the lands of Abraham to the Holy Lands. Again from 1984 a witness for evangelical peace at Monte Sole, – a place consecrated to the memory of a terrible Nazi massacre, and the place where he wished his remains to be buried; and towards the end from 1992 an untiring and vigorous asserter of the historic and political value of the founding principles of the Italian constitution. From this singular itinerary, there emerges his capacity to undergo and carry to their furthest realisation very different experiences with unusual intensity; accumulating in his cultural thinking and in his active experience the riches gathered in each. In the second part are underlined the main Dossetti’ s contributions to the Christian conscience of our time. Firstly his elaboration about the importance of the sense of history both for the political planning and for the doctrinal and historical thinking of contemporary Christianity. A second area of interest for Dossetti concerns ecclesial criticism, i.e. an indication, respectful but unsparing, about the serious difficulties in which the Catholic Church increasingly found itself. In a text of 1951 Dossetti outlined the possible constitutional characteristics of a post-modern state. The thinking stimulated by the Vatican are a crucial aid to contemporary theology and also to the situation of Christians in society. Finally Dossetti’s attitude towards atheism, and above all the atheism of ideologies, operative even where they are not admitted to, is provided with documentation. For the nature of this contribution the article leaves out of consideration material concerning his political experience, the writings concerning his work in the Vatican Council, and the purely spiritual writings.

Susi E., Strategie agiografiche altomedievali in un leggendario di Farfa, XVIII, 277-302.

The cod. Farf. 29 (alias 341) of the Biblioteca Nazionale in Rome, containing a large collection of hagiographic texts compiled at the Sabine Coenoby of Santa Maria of Farfa in the second half of the ninth century, besides being one of the most ancient manuscript testimonies of probable Farfa production to reach us, represents an essential starting point for the study of the cults and the hagiographic strategies of this important monastic center of the Carolingian age. The analysis of this varied but substantially homogeneous .passionary., perhaps part of a fuller, more coherent collection, brings out the presence of very many texts concerning the transalpine martyrs and confessors, which testify to an evident hagiographic influence from beyond the Alps, which together with the various texts relating to the oriental, Roman and Sabine area martyrs allow us a useful if partial reconstruction of the complex Farfa sanctorale of the ninth century, which seems to reflect the many-sided political and religious role assumed by the Lazio monastery in the course of this period. Council II are a crucial aid to contemporary theology and also to the situation of Christians in society. Finally Dossetti’s attitude towards atheism, and above all the atheism of ideologies, operative even where they are not admitted to, is provided with documentation.

Susi E., Strategie agiografiche altomedievali in un leggendario di Farfa, XVIII, 277- 302.

The cod. Farf. 29 (alias 341) of the Biblioteca Nazionale in Rome, containing a large collection of hagiographic texts compiled at the Sabine Coenoby of Santa Maria of Farfa in the second half of the ninth century, besides being one of the most ancient manuscript testimonies of probable Farfa production to reach us, represents an essential starting point for the study of the cults and the hagiographic strategies of this important monastic center of the Carolingian age. The analysis of this varied but substantially homogeneous ≪passionary≫, perhaps part of a fuller, more coherent collection, brings out the presence of very many texts concerning the transalpine martyrs and confessors, which testify to an evident hagiographic influence from beyond the Alps, which together with the various texts relating to the oriental, Roman and Sabine area martyrs allow us a useful if partial reconstruction of the complex Farfa sanctorale of the ninth century, which seems to reflect the many-sided political and religious role assumed by the Lazio monastery in the course of this period. In addition, the data which can be inferred from the ancient passionary, showing the presence of many texts about particular devotions of the areas involved in the expansion of Farfa, contribute to give us an idea of the hagiographic strategies adopted by the Sabine community, which would seem to have sought for a further legitimation of its presence in the territory precisely through the appropriation and the control of the local cults.

Ferrari L., L’esortazione e la norma. Le lettere pastorali nei territori austriaci, XVIII, 303-352.

The custom of addressing a pastoral letter to clergy and people, on the occasion of Lent or at other times of the year, spread gradually among the bishops from the Council of Trent, and became general practice around the half way mark of the last century, Borromeo’s corpus of letters was to become the model of this instrument of pastoral care. Sollicitudo animarum and normative intentions were closely interrelated in its genesis. Here the case of the Habsburg territories is examined. There was the curious utilisation, between the 16th and 18th centuries, of texts defined as .pastoral letters. which were addressed to the clergy alone and which were comparable in content to the synodal statutes. During the age of Teresa and Joseph the letters acquired a propaganda function in favour of the ecclesiastical reforms then in progress, and the bishops used them increasingly widely, probably prodded by the political authorities. The role of the bishoprics, and more widely of the clergy in general, inside the Habsburg’s system of government is the central point of the analysis, whose final part concentrates on the developments of the legislation aimed at guaranteeing state control over the communications between bishop, clergy and the faithful from the reign of Joseph II to the dissolution of the Empire.

Komonchak J.A., Modernity and the Construction of Roman Catholicism, XVIII, 353-386.

This essay offers a description of the construction of the social form of ≪Roman Catholicism≫ that prevailed in the decades before the Second Vatican Council and then was so rapidly transformed after it. To deal with the new situation created by the ≪apostasy≫ of the modern and liberal world from Christ ad his Church and to arm itself with institutions and weapons adequate to the apocalyptic battle that threatened, the Church gave political interpretations to its dogmas and devotions, mobilized its people into hundreds of committed associations, and centralized the lines of authority under a supreme and infallible Pope. Through these developments was formed a distinct sub-society with a distinct subculture to legitimate and inspire it, modern Roman Catholicism. A hypothesis is offered that the main motives and structures of this social form were undercut, however unintentionally, by decisions made at Vatican II.

Menestrina G., Il carteggio Agostino-Gerolamo. Note a margine di un recente studio, XVIII, 387-396.

In going carefully over the recent essay of a German scholar on the Augustine-Jerome Letters: Ralph Hennings, Der Briefwechsel zwischen Augustinus und Hieronymus und ihr Streit um den Kanon des Alten Testaments und die Auslegung von Gal. 2.11-14 (SvigCHR2l), Leiden 1994, the notes suggest the main lines to be followed for a comprehensive study, which includes also a critical edition with an introduction and comment on this correspondence. First of all the criteria adopted by Hennings for the subdivision, the cataloguing and dating of the letters are discussed, as well as the classification of the manuscript tradition and the realisation of the critical text of Augustine’s Epistola 73 (110). There follows a careful examination of other aspects of the essay, especially an evaluation of the discussion between Augustine and Jerome on the Hebraica veritas, on the value of the translation of the seventies and on the interpretation of the Antiochian controversy (Gal 2,11-14). Hennings is given credit for having made a first attempt at an organic study of the subject.

Busa R., Thomae Aquinatis Opera Omnia cum Hypertextibus in CD-ROM, XVIII, 397-404.

The author of this CD-ROM Thomae Aquinatis Opera Omnia cum Hypertextibus is concerned to bring out its individual aspects. It is based on a corpus composed of 118 texts of St. Thomas and 61 others traditionally referred to him; he does not wish merely to present all the texts, but rather to create a tool specially designed for studies of lexicography, lexicology, and hermeneutics. Among the various hypertexts of the work, the lemmatization is particularly useful – which allows research concentrating on the conceptual unity of the terms – and the codification/classification of the quotations, both literal and approximate.

Jossua J-P. – Erba A. – Miccoli G. -. Vischer L. – Theobald C., Per una valutazione critica della Storia del concilio Vaticano II, XVIII, 405-440.

The interventions at the round table held in Bologna Dec. 12th 1996 during the Conference ≪Il Vaticano II: l’evento, l’esperienza, e i documenti finali≫ [≪Vatican 1I: Decrees, Experience and Event≫], which was on the first two volumes of the Storia del concilio Vaticano II published in Bologna and translated into several languages, are here collected together. To the interventions of those present – J.-P. Jossua, A. Erba, G. Miccoli, L. Vischer – is added the review on the books sent by C. Theobald to our journal.

Rusconi R., Fame di santità, XVIII, 503-524.

The practice of canonization during the pontificate of John Paul II has made a great impact on the Christian identity of the Catholic faithful, in the years following the closure of Vatican Council II. At the level of critical reflection a historical-critical enquiry on sainthood in contemporary Italy became necessary, dealing more or less with the period between the Restoration and the new rules on the subject which the Pope issued in 1983. This exploration concerned the demand to see a request for recognition of sainthood accepted, not the sainthood officially recognized by the highest ecclesiastical hierarchy. The pursuit of a cause of beatification anyway expresses a positive recognition of the institutional sanction on the practices and conceptions of the Christian way of life. At least in the field of the official recognition of Christian sainthood by the supreme hierarchy of the Catholic Church, the profound roots in the tridentine tradition of some of the Pope’s choices would seem to be in evidence.

De Palma F., Le cause di beatificazione in Italia. Un approccio storico-statistico, XVIII, 525-556.

This study analyses the complex of causes of beatification presented to the relevant Vatican congregation by Italian dioceses during this century. Of special interest is the chance to follow, through the diachronic study of the sociological and typological contours of the causes themselves, the evolution of the mentality and of the religious qualities of a people, the development of the hagiographical strategies of ecclesial groups and subjects, the ≪relapses≫ of the extraordinary transformation experienced by the contemporary Church. What emerges, is that the world of noncanonized sainthood has changed, even though not to the extent that might have been predictable. The percentage of women out of the total of the servants of God is indeed markedly increasing, but giving greater recognition to the ecclesial dignity of the laity has not been translated, hagiographically speaking, into quantitative terms: monks or nuns still form the overwhelming majority of candidates to sainthood. Among them, in addition, the category of founders has a great and growing weight. Finally, it may be affirmed that the persistence of centuries-old perceptions and mental representations and the great importance of factors which may be described as ≪technical≫, contribute to delay the satisfaction of a different demand for sainthood, more suitable to the expectations and needs of changing times.

Sodano G., La santità a Napoli nell’Ottocento, tra innovazioni e continuità, XVIII, 557-578.

In the diocese of Naples in the age of the Restoration numerous processes for canonization were initiated for the servants of God. In that age Neapolitan sainthood expressed both innovative aspects and elements of continuity with previous centuries. There is the continuing, traditional presence of the servants of God of the regular religious orders. The new feature, on the other hand, was the initiation of processes of canonization for some priests and members of the laity. The priests were involved in the restoration of parish life. The laity were evident above all for their charitable works. The behaviour of the servants of God remains, however, linked to the traditional models of the sainthood of the old regime of the Mezzogiorno of Italy. But a break with traditional models can be seen in their commitment to combat the political ≪enemies≫ of the Church. The sainthood system, therefore, characterized up to that time by its universality, and independent of time, now sees the emergence of aspects of history and politics.

Vian G.M., Papi e santi tra Rivoluzione francese e primo dopoguerra. Per una storia delle canonizzazioni tra Pius VII e Benedetto XV (1800-1922), XVIII, 579-606.

This study aims at reconstructing the dialectic between the internal dynamic of the causes of beatification and canonization and the role of the Papacy in dealing with and controlling these causes. The period is one which sees the papacy confronted by a modernity which was felt to be different and hostile, particularly during the lengthy trauma of the end of temporal power, while at the same time important transformation in the overall form of the Roman Church were taking place. As well as the meaning of the beatifications and canonizations which occur between 1803 and 1920, the sense of other hagiographical interventions by Rome in the same period are examined, such at the institutions of the cult, the proclamation of doctors of the Church, and other provisions of a liturgical and devotional character, while towards the end of the 19th century secular symbols and secular hagiographies are developed, through conflict with, and in polemical opposition to, religious ones.

Melloni A., La causa Roncalli. Origini di un processo canonico, XVIII, 607-636.

The cause of John XXIII’ s beatification, a process formally initiated in the concluding weeks of Vatican Council II by Paul VI, had singular origins: during the council various calls were made to arrive quickly at a definitive judgement on the virtues of the Pope who had summoned it, with an active participation (direct or indirect) of the council fathers. On the basis of materials from unpublished private archives the study analyses the various proposals advanced by Polish, Italian and Brazilian bishops and theologians, and the way in which the announcement of the opening of an ordinary cause for Pope Roncalli was arrived at, together with a cause for Pope Pacelli. The various stages involved in the cause up until today are also recalled.

Manganelli S., Un santo medico nella Napoli contemporanea. Alcune osservazioni sul caso di Giuseppe Moscati, XVIII, 637-658.

The objective the article pursues is in the first place to indicate some of the reasons that form the basis of the reputation of Giuseppe Moscati (1880-1927), a Neapolitan doctor canonized in 1987. This sainthood was actively practised and claimed for himself by Moscati and seems to lie at the origins of the supernatural powers attributed to him, and the intense and spontaneous devotion that develops around him already in the course of his life. In the second place, the article wishes to single out some of the reasons that have determined the meeting between the individual way of life of the .doctor saint. and the ecclesiastical institution, which has found in that way of life the contours of a sainthood deserving official recognition.