XXIX (2008)

Liverani P., Interventi urbani a Roma tra il IV e il VI secolo, XXIX, 1-31.

A series of changes can be observed in the city of Rome between the 4th and the 6th centuries. One notes a decentralisation of various functions of urban life, an increase in the main players in the City and a multiplication of the centres providing essential services. The importance of imperial matters declined, the visibility of both the senatorial class and the functionaries of the city administration increased while the ecclesiastical initiative gained weight. A nucleus of the old heritage of great buildings remained functional until at least the 6th century although a process of reduction and selection of the original centres of civic prestige was clearly evident. The greatest share of funding was devoted to the functional structures of civic life. This represented a profound reorganisation of the city’s structure and of the very ideas of city and citizenship.

Dunaev V., The theology of the Eucharist in the context of the Palamite disputes, XXIX, 33-52.

Using the works of writers supporting Palamite theology (Daniel of Ainos and Theophanes of Nicaea) as well as those opposing it (Nicephorus Gregoras and Arsenius of Tyre), this paper argues that the teachings of Theophanes of Nicaea concerning the symbolic nature of the Holy Gifts, the complete non-communicability of the divine essence in the Eucharist and the communication of energy alone, is the logical conclusion to all Palamite theology. These teachings are hard to reconcile with the tradition of the Holy Fathers, hence the subsequent rejection by Gennadius Scholarius of energy-symbolic Eucharistic theology and his assertion that the Divine essence is communicable through the Eucharist seem justified.

Fattori M.T., Il concilio provinciale del 1725: liturgie e concezioni del potere del papa a confronto, XXIX, 53-112.

The liturgy and ceremony of the 1725 Council for the Province of Rome, called by Benedict XIII served to demonstrate opposing agendas for the Church’s development. The Pope proposed the adoption of ritual and symbolic gestures emphasising the Episcopal munus not only of the bishops called to attend but also of the Bishop of Rome, the Metropolitan of an ecclesiastical region, presiding over an assembly of fratres. On the other hand, these gestures were opposed or criticised by the College of Cardinals, committed to the defence of their own prerogatives, in total identification with the Apostolic See. In this way the Council, understood as a collection of intentions, plans, debates and final decisions, also opens up to include the liturgy. Liturgical interpretation cannot be separated from the polemics or jurisdictional and political conflicts occurring before, during and after the Council. Indeed, the issue of ritual contributed to the significance of the Council, highlighting both the contradictions and alternatives. The Sacred College and the Roman Curia strongly influenced its final results, opposing Pope Orsini’s proposals and re-interpreting them through their normalisation. The Pope’s skill in inserting symbols and original representations into a sub-stratum of ritual gestures and traditional ideas should nonetheless be recognised.

Zamagni G., La «Fine dell’era costantiniana» in F. Heer e M-D. Chenu (1938-1963). In tre quadri e un epilogo al Concilio Vaticano II, XXIX, 113-138.

In the spring of 1963, while Vatican II was in full swing, Chenu wrote the document The Church and the World in the light of Gaudium et spes. The document took up the theme of an article from two years previously called La fin de l’ère constantinienne, contributing to a lively debate going back at least to the end of the Second World War. This formula – ≪The end of the Constantinian Era≫ – had been used by the Viennese anti-Nazi historian Friedrich Heer in the context of an antitotalitarian historical analysis culminating in the end of Nazism.

Mettepenningen J. – Schelkens K., «Quod immutabile est, nemo turbet et moveat». Les rapports entre H. de Lubac et le P. Général J.-B. Janssens dans les années 1946-48, à propos de documents inédits, XXIX, 139-172.

In this article the authors examine the first elements leading to the condemnation of Father Henri de Lubac, particularly relations between de Lubac and the Jesuit Father General Jean-Baptiste Janssens between September 1946 and March 1948. In the first place the authors trace out the main lines of the dispute within what is commonly called nouvelle théologie. This seems to be necessary in order to be able to fully understand the implications of the situation in which both de Lubac and Janssens found themselves given that, in effect, de Lubac was the best-known proponent of nouvelle théologie, in view of his contribution to ressourcement (arguing for a return to origins: i.e. Bible, liturgy and the Church Fathers). In the second place, the authors reconstruct the relationship between de Lubac and Janssens, showing how the joy for the support received from his superiors gave way to disillusionment. De Lubac no longer had the freedom to respond to criticisms coming either from his order or from the outside provoked by his work Surnaturel. Finally, a number of elements of this reconstruction are identified which are able to help in the understanding of nouvelle théologie and subsequent developments in their various aspects.

Bori P.C., «Dotta ignoranza» e compassione in Albert Schweitzer, XXIX, 173-188.

Albert Schweitzer’s intellectual and spiritual life was determined by two decisive moments: the conclusion of his Quest for the historical Jesus, and his contact with the mystery of life in Africa. His search for a synthesis between a mystical Christology and an ethical universalism seems to have remained unfinished, as is confirmed by the important material from his writings published recently. But perhaps his final position, between .docta ignorantia. and compassion, contains a higher wisdom.

Faggioli M., «Al servizio della causa orientale». L’edizione della «Storia della mia vita» di Cyrille Korolevskij, XXIX, 189-206.

This brief essay highlights some aspects of the important publication of the autobiography and papers of Cyrille Korolevskij, one of the most significant figures of Catholic orientalism under Pius XI’s pontificate. The reconstruction of the life and works of Korolevskij, edited by Giuseppe M. Croce, offers an opportunity to evaluate the evolution of Vatican culture in relations with Eastern Christianity in the first half of the twentieth century: from the early plans for a ≪union≫ with the Eastern Churches under the Pope of Rome, to the gradual realisation of the true cultural and political complexity of the relations between denominational Christianity, the Middle East and Eastern Europe.

Buonasorte N., La Chiesa alla prova dell’inculturazione, XXIX, 207-218.

The review deals initially with a first volume published on the 25th anniversary of the Centre de Recherches et d’.changes sur la Diffusion et l’Inculturation du Christianisme, set up in Lyons in 1979, characterised by the presence of scholars with different cultural backgrounds, belonging to different religious denominations and with different academic and pastoral specialities. The book is a collection of contributions dedicated to the beginnings of organised research into the Christian mission, to the places where missions were set up, their practices and their transformation into local Churches, the whole covering an extremely long time span. The second volume dealt with in the review is that drawn from the 2004 annual CREDIC conference papers concerned with the physical conditions in which the missions operated, often vested with ideological significance. The contributions to the 2005 conference were published in the third volume to be reviewed in this paper. These are dedicated to the impact of missions on the identities of the peoples with whom they came into contact at a time in history when identity seems once again to represent a decisive factor in relations with others.

Millet H., Le concile de Perpignan (15 novembre 1408-26 mars 1409). Compte-rendu du colloque international, Perpignan,24-26 janvier 2008, XXIX, 219-230.

The conference was held in celebration of the 6th centenary of the council of Perpignan. Conference proceedings included reviews of the ordo concilii, Martin de Alpartir’s Chronicle and the Council’s official Acta, as well as sources from Aragon Crown records. Three papers considered the positions of nations with few representatives (Navarra, Savoy and Scotland), while three others reported research into the representatives sent by the Duchy of Gascony (12), Castile (112) and Catalonia (79). The explanation of places, public opinion and historiography helped to give new insights into this major event in the resolution of the Great Schism.

Bratož R., Martino e i suoi legami con la Pannonia cristiana, XXIX, 283-316.

Adopting the so-called long chronology of Martin’s life (316/317-397), this paper examines three episodes in the life and work of Martin of Tours. Depicting his youth in Sabaria, the first chapter describes the military setting of Martin’s early life and the development of Christianity in Pannonia, and in Sabaria in particular, during the reign of Emperor Constantine. The second chapter discusses Martin’s visit to Pannonia after his release from the army (357/358) and his clash with the Arians. This throws light on religious conflicts between Catholic Christians and the Arians although it is impossible to establish an authentic identification of these Arian adversaries. The image of Martin that is described in Sulpicius Severus’s book Vita S. Martini is consistent with historical data and with facts cited by polemic literature of the second half of the 4th century. The last chapter discusses the possible, yet unsubstantiated veneration of Martin in Pannonia in the 5th and the 6th centuries. Martin’s status as a bishop with a holy reputation is associated primarily with the name and religious teachings of bishop Martin of Braga (Portugal), himself born in Pannonia, who was a devout worshipper of Martin of Tours. The veneration of Martin spread in Pannonia after the Carolingians defeated Avars at the end of the 8th century.

Lizzi Testa R., Martino vescovo santo: un nuovo modello di santità nell’Occidente tardoantico, XXIX, 317-344.

It is usually assumed that the main influence on Sulpice Severe’s literary depiction of the figure of Martin was the model of sainthood created by Athanase in his Life of St. Anthony. Martin could thus be considered a saint because he was like the hermit of the Egyptian desert, a saint because he too was an ascetic monk. Martin, however, was not only a monk. He lived as a bishop for more than twenty five years and we have to presume that such experience had an effect on his behaviour in real life, exerting an influence on the model Sulpice chose for the life of his holy man. Some central episodes of Sulpice’s account are considered here: Martin’s attempt to leave [get leave from] the Roman army and his decision to confront the Germans totally unarmed leading to their request for peace and renunciation of all fighting; the relationship between Martin and Hilary of Poitiers; the trip to his native Pannonia with the apparent aim of converting his parents and any pagans he met on his travels, and his mission against the Arians, which was probably the main activity of this first period of his new ascetic life. While Martin had not yet been made a bishop at this time, Sulpice still describes him as a man with special powers, above all his miracle working, typical of a man with a special relationship with the Divine. These powers and their effects are described in a similar way to those of the biblical Elisha, the Prophet-shepherd endowed with clairvoyance and the power of divination, the recipient of Elijah’s charisma and thaumaturgical powers and whose prayers freed the people of Bothan from the siege of the Aramaic king. Indeed, at the end of the fourth century, Elisha was used as a figure for a new kind of Episcopal model, the episcopus otiosus – a holy man, able to operate miracles and prodigies in the defence of his town and his people against their enemies. Ambrose, in the West, applied this new model when celebrating the sanctity of Acholius, bishop of Thessalonica on his death. He also used the same model as a kind of shield for himself against his personal enemies during his lifetime. All over the Empire, many other bishops started to be celebrated as saints, partly in recognition of their efforts in expanding Christianity, but above all as a weapon against the Arians in the imposition of the Nicene faith. Sulpice, who wanted to create an ideal figure as the protector of his new monastic organization at Marmoutier, assimilated Martin to this new generation of bishop-saints.

Ciccaglioni G., Tra unificazione e pluralismo. Alcune osservazioni sull’esperienza pastorale e di dominio politico di Guido Tarlati, vescovo e signore di Arezzo (1312-1327), XXIX, 345-376.

This paper takes as its starting point the political and religious aspects of the life of Guido Tarlati, bishop and ruler of Arezzo (1312 to 1327). Documents concerned with Arezzo’s monasteries, confraternities, communal societies and urban features are examined by reference to the network of relations they reveal. This method of analysis offers an understanding of not only Guido’s point of view, but also the strategies adopted by other players: the papacy, local parties and confraternities, monasteries, the common people and aristocratic families. At the same time it provides clues to another area of interest – how the interaction between the same players also had the effect of changing them. Thus it is that the religious and political dimension in which Guido was acting was itself an emanation of the interaction between the various parties. An attempt has been made to identify new keys of understanding apart from the classical ones, for instance Ghibellinism, the reassertion of Arezzo’s authority over the contado and Guido’s ambition to take full control of the city, issues which have also been seen as important guidelines in other recent studies on Guido.

Berrettini M., Tra Ancién Regime e Rivoluzione. Filippo Sardi, la Chiesa e lo Stato lucchese (1789-1805), XXIX, 377-416.

The Italian Catholic Church’s reaction to the Revolutionary phenomenon was far from uniform. Attitudes to the novel events in France varied between rejection and opposition on the one hand and benevolent acceptance on the other although there were also important attempts at mediation. The pastoral activities of Filippo Sardi, Archbishop of Lucca, should be seen in this latter category. Having realised that the political position of the revolutionary class of Lucca was far from radically anti-Christian but could be encompassed by the .royalist. tradition of the previous aristocratic Republic, Sardi skilfully used an alternation of clear statements of principle and dialogue with a view to establishing a modus vivendi which, without indulging in the elaboration of a ≪democratic theology≫, would allow the Christian believers of Lucca to be both Catholics and citizens at the same time.

De Carli R., La Iglesia reivindica su autonomia e independencia: la revision concordataria en el ocaso de la dictadura militar,XXIX, 417-474.

This paper is an extract from the doctoral degree thesis ≪The Catholic nation after national-Catholicism: Church and national identity in Spain during the last Franco regime and the transition to democracy≫. It retraces the talks between Spain and the Holy See as part of a reassessment of their Agreement of 1953, illustrating the effective involvement of the Catholic Church in the liberalisation of the Franco regime. Focusing attention on the interaction between domestic policy and foreign policy (the prerogative of all States), the text highlights the political and diplomatic role that the Holy See assigned to the Spanish Bishops’ Conference to achieve its international ends. It also examines the nature of the ecclesiastical hierarchy’s political engagement in the increasing pressure for democracy exerted by Spanish society during the last period of the Franco regime.

Moreau D., Notes pour servir de complément à la «nouvelle édition» du Tome à Flavien (E. Schwartz et E. Mühlenberg, in COGD 1 [2006] 127-132), XXIX, 475-522.

This paper proposes some complementary notes to the ≪new edition≫ of Pope Leo the Great’s Tome to Flavian in the Conciliorum oecumenicorum generaliumque decreta. Editio critica (Turnhout 2006). Using literally the text established by the German philologist Eduard Schwartz in 1932 for the Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum – probably because of its reputation of perfection –, the editor did not consider another edition published in the same year by the Austro-Portuguese Jesuit Karl Silva Tarouca. Nevertheless, the comparison between the two texts and, especially, the reading of Silva-Tarouca’s studies on Leo’s letters lead to some doubts about the ≪new edition≫. Indeed, this text would not correspond exactly with the Tome which would have been read and approved in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon. Before coming to these philological matters, the paper recalls the history of the dogmatic letter to Flavian prior to 451 and comments the principal editions before 1932.

Fattori M.T., Cattolicesimo tridentino, ordini religiosi, Nuovo Mondo attraverso alcuni studi recenti, XXIX, 523-536.

This paper analyses a number of recent publications dedicated to the form taken by Tridentine Catholicism in its encounter with the New World of Latin America and Peru in particular. The goal is to bring together the findings of different research projects which are being conducted in parallel in an attempt to promote communication between different linguistic contexts as well as between research groups or researchers working, for the most part, independently from each other. Recent historiography has focused over the last decade on the evolution of the Company of Jesus there are now a number of extremely significant documents available to historians arising from the encounter between missionaries and the reality of the New World. They are documents which are changing perceptions, making it possible to collect together the directions and possibilities followed by the Jesuits and the Mendicant Orders in missionary activities throughout the world. The variety of political cultures and political projects, interpretations of the Indios past, attempts to fit the history of the Americas into the well-trodden paths of the history of Western Christianity and plans for Churches based on secular clergy or rather, ordinary clergy, open to Creoles and mixed race, are only some of the data emerging from the research under consideration. Of particular importance is the thesis deriving from research into the sacraments in Mexico by Osvaldo Pardo, that the missionaries cultural arsenal, already influenced by relations with ≪the other≫ in the European context – the Jews and the Muslim infidel – was further changed by contact with the cultural context of the Indians. The contact with new Christians modified the initial terms of the equation whereby .Europeaness. was equated with being a Christian, giving rise to unexpected forms of compromises, negotiations and translations that not only adapted the sacraments and Indian customs to the Catholic cultural system by giving them new meaning but heightened the self-knowledge of those same missionaries involved in work of religious conversion alongside colonial domination.

Moingt J., Henri de Lubac au Concile, XXIX, 537-546.

The note illustrates Henri de Lubac’s attitude during the Second Vatican Council as appearing from his Carnets du Concile. He was involved from the very start of the Preparatory Commission (1960) and was initially under the impression that he continued to be viewed with suspicion as a theologian who had strayed from the Orthodox line (originating with the arguments surrounding his Surnaturel). He continued, however, to interpret everything in the light of his own theology. Slowly though, above all after the second period of the Council, he became increasingly concerned particularly with regard to the weight given by many theologians to critical exegesis (in his view in conflict with the traditional hermeneutics of the meaning of Scripture) and the excessive horizontalism of the Church’s opening up to the world which he considered would result in its secularisation. He was in favour of the Constitution of the Church in the contemporary world (Gaudium et spes)but feared that it would be wrongly interpreted after the Council. All this was further weighed down by a great sense of isolation even from his Jesuit brothers combined with the fear that the central message of his theology would not be heard.

Faggioli M., Council Vatican II. Bibliographical Overview 2005-2007, XXIX, 567-610.

The review essay analyses the theological debate about Vatican II in the last few years, especially after the election of Benedict XVI. Across the world, theologians and historians are working on the hermeneutics and reception of Vatican II considered both as corpus of final documents and as a four-year-long historical event. But for the 21st century Church historians interested in understanding contemporary Catholicism in the light of Vatican II, the intellectual undertaking is far from complete. It is no surprise that the polemics against the ≪spirit≫ of Vatican II shows a woefully inadequate connection with the source-based historiography and proves to have scant knowledge of the awareness of ≪what actually happened≫ at Vatican II in its historical unfolding. After the era of the first comprehensive account of the council, it has come the time for a new, multi-dimensional approach to the history of Vatican II – beyond the history of individual documents or the history of individual actors at the council.

Melloni A., Giuseppe Alberigo, 1926-2007. Appunti per un profilo biografico, XXIX, 665-702.

This paper recounts a number of the main achievements in the life and research of G. Alberigo who died at the age of 82 in 2007. Introduced to research through the initiative of Giuseppe Dossetti and the “Centro di Documentazione” (Documentation Centre) in Bologna which the latter opened in 1953, Alberigo owed his historical education to Hubert Jedin and Delio Cantimori under whose guidance he began his studies on the Council of Trent. His work on Vatican II meant that he was one of the few in lay circles with the competence to contribute to the discussion on this topic, becoming one of its most authoritative historical experts, interweaving this research with his work on Pope John. In the last part of his life his work on synods and the liturgy together with a return to editing Council decrees lead to his recognition as an authentic historian.

Ruggieri G., Alberigo di fronte a Dossetti e Jedin, XXIX, 703-724.

The paper recounts the meeting between Giuseppe Alberigo and Giuseppe Dossetti and the development of their relationship. It had its moments of tension arising from the differences inherent in the choice of the secular path by one and of the monastic life by the other. Its strongest element lay however in their common interest in Vatican II. The author also uses available correspondence to describe the relationship established between Alberigo and Hubert Jedin – always clear and uncomplicated even though characterised by a marked difference in their respective interpretations of the history of the Church.

Prosperi A., I vescovi italiani al Concilio di Trento, XXIX, 725-734.

This contribution relates the author’s personal experience of a number of aspects of the setting for the first appearance and reading of Giuseppe Alberigo’s book on Italian bishops at the Council of Trent.

Ganzer K., Lo storico delle istituzioni ecclesiastiche, XXIX, 735-760.

The article retraces many contributions devoted by Alberigo to the research on Church institutions: from the study on the presence of Italian bishops at the Council of Trent to the evolution of cardinals, to the nature of councils of the late middle ages to the college of bishops. Thus emerges the peculiarity of Alberigo’s approach which is always careful to contextualize the various positions, demonstrating the weight of the concrete situation in the evolution of the institutions themselves and avoiding to transform doctrines into abstract theories. Finally the article points to the Alberigo’s turn to the study of synods in their liturgical dimension, as a prerogative of the entirety of the Christian community.

Galavotti E., «È un cristiano sul serio». Giuseppe Alberigo e l’interpretazione di Giovanni XXIII, XXIX, 761-874.

Giuseppe Alberigo dedicated 40 years to the study of the work and life of John XXIII. His research followed, with great fidelity, the methodological orientation deriving from the lecture of Cardinal Lercaro at the Istituto Sturzo in 1965, recommending, in the case of Pope John, that research should not be so much concerned with finding elements of continuity with previous popes but should rather be capable of highlighting the prophetic nature of the Roncalli pontificate, identifying its qualities in minute detail as well as the resistance he encountered from the Curia. In this sense, the results of Alberigo’s research, while themselves making a radical contribution to the increase in the knowledge and understanding of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, have also served to demonstrate how much more has to be done before we have a full understanding of John XXIII’s life and Christian witness. The as yet unpublished text of a seminar taken by Alberigo at Bologna’s Istituto per le Scienze Religiose in 2000 is included as an appendix where he reviews the research on the Roncalli “question”.

Lamberigts M., Alberigo and/on the History of Vatican II, XXIX, 875-902.

This article presents the contribution of G. Alberigo to the History of Vatican II. It first pays attention to the hermeneutical rules as developed by Alberigo. In Alberigo’s view of the history of the Council, the notion of “event” plays an important role. Alberigo opted for this approach because he considered it as the best tool for a fair historical-critical reconstruction of the Council’s history. Moreover, such an approach does more justice to the richness of the conciliar texts than an a-contextual, a-historical reading of these texts in their own right: the critique that Alberigo should neglect the value of the conciliar texts is, with good argument, rejected as invalid. This contribution also makes clear the inner relation between Alberigo’s personal convictions as committed and engaged Christian and that the project: Vatican II belonged to his personal “histoire v.cue”, and especially the discovery of the fascinating world of ecumenism outside Italy deeply influenced him. Moreover, it is clear that the pre-Vatican II ‘underdogs’ and those engaged in the life of the poor received his unconditional support. He was also very sensible about the idea of renewal, an idea so dear to his hero John XXIII. Attention is also paid to the fruitful interaction between the project History of Vatican II and the renewed concern for the collection, of archival material, related to the Council. The article concludes with some critical remarks on Alberigo’s (exaggerated?) praise of John XXIII and his critical attitude to Paul VI and the Roman Curia. With regard to Paul VI, the article nuances the critiques of one-sidedness. However, the appreciation for the work remains and this author is well aware that Alberigo considered his project as the beginning of a long lasting research project into the most important event of the Roman Catholic Church of the twentieth century.

Alberigo A., Testimonianza, XXIX, 903-908.

Angelina, Giuseppe Alberigo’s wife, retells that part of their life together when the “desire and need for radical change” first took form in the years after the 2nd World War. It appears that what was of decisive importance at this stage in his life was not only the meeting with Dossetti but also, and above all, the announcement and celebration of Vatican II combined with the figure of John XXIII himself.

Fouilloux É., Un quart de siècle avec Giuseppe Alberigo, XXIX, 909-920.

The previous pages evoke, on a personal point of view, some of the memories gleaned from a quarter of a century of academic collaboration with Giuseppe Alberigo. They have an anecdotal fragility but are intended to evoke a little of the warmth of those shared moments of their lives.

Spaccamonti L. – Faggioli M., Bibliografia di Giuseppe Alberigo, 1956-2008, XXIX, 921-962.