XXV (2004)

Studer B., Geschichte und Glaube bei Origenes und Augustinus, XXV, 1-24.

The aim of this study is to compare the relationship between .history and faith. in Origen and Augustine. It is fruitful to make this comparison because both authors had to defend the faith against pagan authors, Celse and Porphyry, who denied the Christian faith by using the same historical considerations; and both Origen and Augustine followed this same method taken from ancient historiography. Both understood the word .historia. as meaning both research and account. They distinguish between the .myth. of poets and the true accounts of historians. They try to demonstrate the credibility of witnesses who recount past and contemporary events. Secondly, they are concerned with the usefulness of the faith, following Graeco-Roman and Judeo-Christian traditions. Thirdly, they distinguish between historical faith by which people accept the witness of other people, and .spiritual faith. by which the faithful see a deeper sense in the res gestae transmitted and, transcending what they believe without seeing it, move towards eternal truths revealed in the events which are recounted. The analyses which Augustine makes about nature and faith go beyond what Origen says. Fourth, both authors see in Christ the great witness and the only true teacher. If Augustine teaches with greater clarity that only those who love the Resurrection of Christ are able to love the Trin- ity, Origen understood better that the revelation of the love of God is made first in the heart of Jesus, united to the Logos.

Cavalcanti E., La cosiddetta «guerra giusta» nel De civitate Dei di Agostino, XXV, 25-58.

St. Augustine became a classic point of reference in the Just War theory, beginning with the work by the jurist Gracian, Concordia dìscordantium canonum, better known as Gracian’s Decree (circa 1140). Reference to St. Augustine appears to persist, albeit with a somewhat different emphasis in the course of the twentieth century when passages from his work began to be re-examined in their historical and literary context. This paper deals with St. Augustine’s broad considerations on war, particularly in De civitate Dei, with the aim of understanding their development through a literary analysis of the theme in the context of the work as a whole. The rhetorical use of irony and sarcasm emerges when Augustine describes the equation: unjust enemy / just war, traditionally used in the defence of war; with particular reference to the expansionistic wars of the Roman Empire. St. Augustine demonstrates the limitations of this equation, and through the concept of miseria hominis, identifies the true perspective from which to understand and recognise the profound evil which is both the cause and result of war.

Pellegrini M., Attorno all’«economia della salvezza». Note su restituzione d’usura, pratica pastorale ed esercizio della carità in una vicenda senese del primo Duecento, XXV, 59-102.

An ≪ordinary≫ episode involving the restitution of malacquisti (ill-gotten gains) is the point of departure for this attempt to examine the issues raised by usury both for the local Church and the town’s people of a great 13th century mercantile and financial centre. The article explores the question of the condemnation of usury, long the subject of investigation at an ethical-economic level, through documentary sources and in a precise local context but still within the framework of the theoretical debate. In this way we see, even at the beginning of the 13th century, on the one hand, the development of action at a pastoral level by both the episcopacy and the local clergy in their relations with the lay economic elite and, on the other; the attempt by the latter to work out redistribution strategies, under the guidance of the Church, capable of reconciling ethical principles with the demands of the market. Even after the middle of the century the main lay interlocutors in Siena society were, to a greater extent than the mendicant orders, the lay members of the main charitable confraternities of the city, beginning with the ≪Ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala≫. They can indeed, be seen as true laboratories where the daily ferment of changing skills and awareness contributed to the birth of the new economy of public charitable works, destined to play a by no means insignificant role in the city economies of the 14th and 15th centuries.

Fattori M.T., «An cardinales etiam non requisiti teneantur ex natura officii sui Papae consilia ministrare»: appunti sulla crisi del Sacro Collegio durante il pontificato di Gregorio XIV, XXV,103-132.

In 1591 Cardinal Giulio Antonio Santori wrote a short memorandum to Gregory XIV in the form of an auto-apologia. The memorandum explored the question of whether a cardinal was permitted to provide advice even when not requested by the Pope both in the context of Church tradition and of the papal magistracy. The  memorandum was written after a dispute had occurred between Pope Sfondrato and the Sacred College in the Consistory following the Pontiff’s attempt to derogate from Pius V’s Bull Admonet nos, to permit the successor designated by Alfonso II, the Duke D’Este, to be invested with the feudal lands of Ferrara. Santori had been a cardinal since 1570, had held many offices both in the Curia and in the Congregation of the Holy Inquisition. He decided to defend and sustain his position with a reflection on the auxiliary function of cardinals. The article discusses the events of 1591 which lead the Cardinal to write the Memorandum. It then briefly analyses the document itself, comparing it with other contemporary texts, using this comparison as a source of information to throw light on the crisis in the auxiliary and joint governmental functions of the Cardinal’s College.

Serrano Blanco L., La Transición democrática de la Iglesia española: del nacionalcatolicismo a la lucha por la democracia,XXV, 133-166.

This article contains the results of the research carried out by Dr. Serrano (PhD) for his doctorate. He presents an analysis of the dramatic changes in the public face of the Spanish Church during the ≪tardofranquismo≫ – the final period of the Franco dictatorship. The Spanish Catholic Church underwent an important transformation in its socio-political functionality over the sixties and seventies. It changed from a position supporting and legitimizing Franco’s regime to one which was critical of it. At first, these changes take the form of lay and ecclesiastical actions against the dictatorship, with the Church favourable to a new and democratic political system. Then, the institutional alliance between the Church and the State breaks in the seventies. The author analyzes the factors leading to this change and proposes a theoretical framework explaining the transformation of the Spanish Church’s socio-political functionality, presenting an assessment of the types of democratic processes encouraged by it.

Miccoli G., La Storia della Compagnia di Gesù in Italia di Giacomo Martina, XXV, 167-180.

The history of the Society of Jesus in Italy over the last two centuries is recounted in a book by Giacomo Martina. The author of this paper highlights some crucial aspects in the life of this order characterising its historical development. Over the nineteenth century and a part of the twentieth it was seen typically as the custodian of Roman Catholic Orthodoxy and the butt of anti-clerical persecution, while the inf1uence of Vatican II and its promoter Pope Roncalli has resulted in the Order becoming more open towards modernity.

Pacik R., I diari privati di Josef Andreas Jungmann (1913-1937; 1965-1970), XXV, 181-194.

Josef A. Jungmann kept a private diary covering long periods of his life. This article describes the two volumes of the diary, provides a general overview of their content and highlights some themes characteristic of Jungmann’s ideas on the renewal of the Church.

Faggioli M., Per una biografia di Eugène Tisserant. Il convegno di Toulouse (22-23 novembre 2002), XXV, 195-200.

This brief article gives a report of the proceedings and central points dealt with by the international conference ≪Le cardinal Eugène Tisserant (1884-1972). Une grande figure de l’Église, une grande figure française≫ held in Toulouse over 22 and 23 November, 2002. It reviews the conference papers dealing with the three aspects of Card. Tisserant’s life around which the Conference itself was structured: Tisserant and the Eastern Churches, Tisserant as bishop of his dioceses of Porto- Santa Rufina (Italy) and Tisserant and contemporary France. The article draws attention in particular to the glaring absence of an analysis of Tisserant’s work with Vatican II. It also notes a number of other aspects of his life requiring further study, looking forward to the complete biography of Card. Tisserant scheduled for publication in 2005.

Alberigo G., A Roma «“réforme” fait surtout difficulté», XXV, 201-208.

The publication of the diary of Yves Congar relating to the 10 years following the end of the Second World War allows us to retrace the difficult road taken by Padre Congar at that time. With the help of the pertinent notes and comments by Étienne Fouilloux on the writings of the Dominican theologian, we see the fortress of Congar’s faith, bringing him through many moments of crisis on the one hand and the immobility of the Vatican, the reason for many of those crises on the other. It also provides an insight into Congar’s productive participation in the Second Vatican Council.

Galavotti E., Un cristiano nella storia, XXV, 323-332.

This issue contains the papers of the international conference .Rivisitare Giovanni XXIII. (John XXIII Revisited) held in Bologna from 1 to 3 June 2003. Scholars from all over the world were able to report on the current position of Roncalli research and to give an evaluation of the new paths which have recently opened up – it is at last possible to gain access to Roncalli’s Diary which he had kept faithfully for decades. Historical research in this area has undoubtedly been stimulated by the great popularity which this Pope continues to enjoy. The reasons for this have been identified both in the expectations of the Catholic world on his election and in the particular way in which John XXIII was able to change the dynamics of the functions of the Papal office, provoking interest which was not confined to just the Catholic community.

Melloni A., L’anima di Roncalli, XXV, 333-351.

The son of Tridentine spirituality, Roncalli dedicated all his devotion to the care of his soul and his faith as well as to salus animarum. The documentation on Rancalli is extraordinary for its quantity, quality and accessibility, making it possible to create archives covering Pope John’s life and the whole spectrum of internal ecclesiastical communication. The sources range from his homilies to his letters, from family papers in Bergamo dialect to diplomatic despatches, from his diary of appointments to his encyclicals, from his personal diaries to his spiritual soliloquies. This intimate discussion is developed in two sources in particular, the Giornale dell’anima≫ (Journal of a Soul), the collection of his thoughts and spiritual diaries from 1902 onwards and his reading notebook, annotation of the most important passages of the texts he meditated on. For Roncalli this intimate form of writing is a kind of prayer with famous paradigms in the Confessiones, Francis’s spiritual autobiography and St. Ignatius of Loyola. His own writings, however, have a precise character of their own, leading him from the Breviary and the Missal to a search for contact with the Bible and the Church fathers. Roncalli did not seek to create a theological system from this study. His characteristic trait remains that of the simplicity of his internal dialogue side by side with the ever greater attention for the human dimension – revealing the critical point of his soul’s journey: the Church seeking to serve man as humanity.

Butturini L., Roncalli tra Roma e Bergamo (1901-1920): esperienze, letture, riflessioni, XXV, 353-386.

This article follows a number of stages in Roncalli’s training and early development, from the years of study at the Roman Seminary to his ministry at the Church of Bergamo, also examining his cultural experiences including those of a more existential kind. In the first place, a number of aspects are identified of use in clarifying Roncalli’s approach to the dialectic between faith and criticism in the climate of increasing diffidence towards scientific research caused by the modernist crisis. This examination of the period of Roncalli’s training and development has been able to show a substantial continuity in his position and awareness up to the years of his papacy within an attitude of respect for the Church’s tradition. There are elements of discontinuity as well. Thus the young Roncalli’s position in relation to the war appears radically different from that he was to adopt during his papacy. During the First World War Roncalli’s basic approach, as was the greater part of the Catholic world, concentrated entirely on local and national ambitions, a long way from the wholesale condemnation of war and refusal to accept a nationalistic vision characterising the statements of Benedict XV.

Martano V., Roncalli nella quotidianità a Istanbul e Atene, XXV, 387-414.

Roncalli spent about 20 years in the East during the period of his maturity. These years represent an original contribution to his personal development and and his evolving spirituality. They mark a personal exodus from the closed world of Catholicism; opening his soul to an appreciation of the other. This development was to bear its true fruits during the period of his papacy, characterising a historical and unprecedented change in relations between the Church and the contemporary world. The Diaries represent a source of unrivalled importance, truly providing a window onto his soul over this period. These same 20 years were times of delicate transition in both Turkey and Greece following the dissolution of the old order under the Ottoman empire and the rise of new states, resulting in the complete overturning of the previous religious and ethnic balances. Roncalli experienced both the secularism of Atatürk’s Turkey and the confessional faith of Greece. In both case she was prepared to jettison nostalgia for the past and to adapt himself unhesitatingly to what the present had to show when looking for the possible roles the Church would be able to play in the new context. His pastoral initiatives, his ecumenical approach, particularly to the Greek Orthodox Church (which was to have such important results during the Second Vatican Council) combined with his diplomatic activities (designed to ensure the Church remained detached from any form of nationalism even during the troubled times of the Second World War) can be interpreted as passages of fundamental importance in the development of his thinking and as experimentation for the many innovations which were to reach fruition during the years of his pontificate.

Fouilloux É., Le nonce Roncalli d’après ses Agendas parisiens (1945-1953), XXV, 415-432.

This short paper is an initial attempt to make use of Roncalli’s Paris Diaries (soon to be published). An attempt has been made firstly, to establish an effective method for the exploration of this exceptional source and, once defined, it is then applied to the political side of the nuncio’s work in France. As both Churchman and diplomat, he avoided interfering with French political debate, except when criticising nationalism or communism and pleading for Catholic unity. Keeping faith with his instructions from the Vatican, he refused to follow the French Governments line on the dismissal and appointment of bishops.

Galavotti E., The Life of Patriarch Roncalli, XXV, 433-456.

Roncalli’s diplomatic service finally came to an end with his appointment as the Patriarch of Venice. He was then able, as he had long wished, to dedicate himself to the pastoral ministry. Roncalli’s Diary covers the daily life of this new appointment leading to his election to the Papacy in 1958. It provides a very special view of his Patriarchacy, revealing his particular character and sensibilities such as his unceasing spiritual self-searching and exploration, the emphasis on the importance of the pastoral element of his position, his rejection of authoritarianism as an end in itself and with a keen awareness of the richness of the Venetian ecclesiastical tradition. The Diary also provides details of his autobiography, of those projects he was never able to follow up and of the manner in which he, as the Venetian Patriarch, prepared for the Conclave from which he would emerge as the elected Pope.

Alberigo G., I giorni del patriarca Roncalli, XXV, 457-480.

Today, when we re-read Roncalli’s Diaries (which he kept meticulously from October 1958 up to the eve of his death) we can pose the question whether the situation of the Papacy, with its new and impelling requirements, compromised the interior equilibrium that had characterised Roncalli throughout his life. An analysis of the Pope’s Diaries kept throughout the five years of his reign as pontiff, highlights how he was able to make his own personal impression on the contemporary Papacy after the long and authoritative reign of Pius XII. It reveals Roncalli’s commitment to create a human papacy, consistent with the Pope’s full participation in the common human condition. This commitment is expressed in the rediscovery of the Community and in the effort to portray the Papacy as a service, rejecting the dominant adversarial culture and bearing witness to the abilities of a Christian, a Pope indeed, to live the faith in history. The Diaries confirm that his attempts to present the Church on the one hand, as itself poor and on the other; as the champion of the poor underpinned this commitment, as indeed did the insistence of the central importance of Peace on Earth in an atomic age, going beyond the possibility or plausibility of a Just War.

Beloeil D., Le pontificat de Jean XXIII dans les les médias français (1958-1963), XXV, 481-510.

French journalists gave great weight to Pope John XXIII’s personality, notably by continued reference to the ≪Bon Pape Jean≫ and his gentleness. His election met with unanimous approval in France due to the the fact that he had previously been French Papal nuncio over a period of eight years. His numerous pastoral initiatives (often of an unexpected nature) taken with his actions promoting peace and ecumenical dialogue, received very positive coverage. On the other hand, media reaction to John XXIII’s nine encyclicals was extremely mixed. The Second Vatican Council was presented in a good light and seen as the pontificate’s principal achievement. The peak of John XXIII’s popularity with the French public came with his increasing ill-health in December 1962, casting a cloud over the close of the first session of the Vatican Council, a cloud which only intensified during his final suffering from May till June 1963.

Klein N., Das Pontifikat Johannes’ XXIII. in den Medien des deutschen Sprachraumes. Hauptthemen und Perspektiven der Berichterstattung, XXV, 511-530.

The evolution of the Catholic Church after the Second World War in Austria, Germany and the German speaking part of Switzerland was influenced by the attempt to reconstruct Political Catholicism. In spite of this common denominator, the Church’s development took very different forms in the three countries deriving from the reactions of the different peoples to dictatorship and occupation (in the case of Germany and Austria) and to the military threat by Germany (Switzerland) after 1945. The years after 1945 saw a reaffirmation of the Western tradition of democracy. Catholics too, reacted to the processes of modernization. The mass media debated the pontificate of Pope John XXIII in this perspective, particularly the announcement of the Second Vatican Council and the different phases of its preparation, the encyclical letters and Pope John XXIII’s style of government. The issues of autonomy and responsibility of Catholics in a modern democracy and the problems of ecumenism acted as catalysts in this debate, also influenced by the tensions of the cold war.

Woodward K.L., The Image of Pope John XXIII in the English Language Press, XXV, 531-556.

In his brief pontificate, John XXIII enjoyed uniformly favourable, if sometimes puzzled, treatment from this representative sample of the English-speaking press. Initially the focus was on his wit and warmly human personality. Very soon, however, his unexpected calling of Vatican Council II and his major encyclicals – Mater et Magistra and Pacem in Terris – transformed his image into that of a bold innovator. In the end, it was his concern for world peace at the height of the Cold War and his effort to reach beyond Catholics to address all people of good will that won Pope John universal praise and affection. His death was mourned in editorials throughout the English-speaking world, including journals that previously had shown little interest in or support for leaders of the Catholic Church.

Vilanova E., Il pontificato di Giovanni XXIII nella stampa spagnola, XXV, 557-568.

The election of John XXIII to the Roman pontificate came as a surprise in Spain. He was not well known even though he had been on a long visit to Spain in 1954. The official press did not give great importance to the event. After the 1936 war, political-religious attention, organised by the Ministry of Information and Tourism, was distinguished by an attempt to bring influence to bear on the Church, particularly on the Second Vatican Council. As the Council developed this tended to create a dual vision of the Pope himself. The official organisations controlled by the regime under the name of National Catholicism gave rise to a break between the official view, cool and uninterested, and a group of more liberal publications which took the risk of providing a serene and friendly interpretation of the Pope’s character. Taken as a whole however, these publications rarely rose above the mediocre.

Grasso A., Il pontificato giovanneo nel giornalismo televisivo, XXV, 569-574.

This article seeks to review Italian television’s interest in Pope John XXIII. In addition to the most significant moments of television news reporting, consideration is also given to the post mortem accounts of the life of the ex-Venetian Patriarch. These reconstructions of his life are of two types: fictional (two television fictional accounts have recently been concerned with the figure of John XXIII, depicting the character of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in very different ways) or documentary. Attention is also given to the different approach to the media adopted under the pontificates of Pius XII, John XXIII and John-Paul II.

La Valle R., Essere giornalisti al tempo di papa Giovanni, XXV, 575-582.

News of Pope John filled the newspapers but this does not mean he was a media creation. It was not journalism that created the person of Pope John, it was rather the Pope who moulded the journalism dealing with him. There was indeed the impression at that time, that the Good News shone again with Pope John XXIII and that something great was happening within the Church. The first inkling was the election itself, a Pope so different from his predecessors. Then there was his coronation speech which gave some indication of the nature of changes which were waiting just over the horizon. The news became truly striking though, on his visit to the Bambin Ges. Hospital and to the Regina Coeli Prison, in this way breaking all stereotypes. The journalists covering these events were asked to talk about peace, comprehension, fraternity and bridging distances. The other great news was then the calling of the Council. The Council, from a journalistic point of view, exploded but solely to the Pope’s advantage, at Loreto and Assisi. More than a journalistic affair, it became a televised event with total coverage.

Tucci R., La Civiltà Cattolica durante il pontificato giovanneo, XXV, 583-594.

New insights can be gained into a number of points of fundamental importance to John XXIII’s papacy from the accounts of his meetings with the editor of ≪La Civilt. Cattolica≫. These include relations with the First Secretary of State Tardini; Roncalli’s attitude to the visit of the Primate of the Anglican Church, Fisher; the background to the promulgation of the apostolic constitution Veterum Sapientia; the Pope’s relations to the attacks on the Pontificio Istituto Biblico (Papal Biblical Institute); the resistance of the Curia to the visit of Chrušcäv’s son-in-law as well as to the idea of an opening to the left in Italy. The whole gives an overview of the complex relationship between John XXIII and ≪La Civiltà Cattolica≫, a journal for which the Pope had high regard because of its coverage of the preparatory work for the Second Vatican Council.

Tenenbaum B., Nuncio Angelo Roncalli – Papa Juan XXIII: ejemplo e inspiracion moral para la humanidad, XXV, 595-608.

John XXIII, the Good Pope, inaugurated a new era in relations between the Catholic Church and the Jewish people. It was a new era of understanding and tolerance after centuries of denigration, prejudice and religious persecution. The first seed of this new opening between the Catholic Church and the Jewish people can be found in the humanitarian work that Monsignor Angelo Roncalli carried out for the benefit of the Jewish victims of Nazism in his position as Papal Legate in Turkey during the Second World War II needed a series of extraordinary events, altruistic initiatives, diplomatic intrigues and courageous effort to save these human victims. The untiring inspiration for these disinterested humanitarian actions was Nuncio Roncalli himself. Even though John XXIII was elected to the papacy at a relatively advanced age, his reign could certainly not be characterised as a papacy of the status quo. The central theme around which the decisions of the Council turned once it had been called, was Christian unity. Nonetheless, Pope John XXIII’s religious openness lead him to include the theme of relations between the Catholic Church and the non-Christian religions in general and the Jewish faith in particular as part of its agenda. Nuncio Roncalli’s previous experience as Papal Legate in countries which were mainly Eastern Orthodox or Muslim had made him aware of the importance of dialogue between the Church and these religions.

Roccucci A., Mosca e il papa della pace, XXV, 609-624.

The new policy implemented by John XXIII on the international scene introduced elements of contradiction in the ideological framework. Moscow was used to looking at the Holy See. Soviet analysts emphasized in their reports the signs of change that could be noticed in the action of the new pontiff. The main innovation was identified in the position of the Pope on the issue of peace, that was the key issue Roncalli used to make his way into the Soviet world. The choice of peace as a priority of the personal commitment of the Pope and, somehow even of the activity of the Holy See, upset the fixed positions of the cold war, locating the pontificate above the blocks’ divisions. Peace was the ground where during Chrušcäv’s time a contact between Soviet Union and Holy See could be established as a way out from the rigid contraposition of the previous years.

Tancini M., La documentazione roncalliana nel Fondo bolognese, XXV, 625-658.

The article reworks the contribution appearing in the collective work Un cristiano sul trono di Pietro. Studi storici su Giovanni XXIII a cura della Fondazione per le scienze religiose Giovanni XXIII, Gorle 2003, 351 to 383. It introduces the collation process of archived sources and explain their organisation: ≪Archivio Roncalli-Capovilla≫ AR), the archive ≪Scritti del Servo di Dio≫ (SSD) and ≪Archivio Privato Capovilla≫ (APC), the ≪Cairoli≫ Archive (FCA) the ≪Mario Benigni≫ Archive (FMB), the ≪Archivio Roncalli – ISR≫ (AR-ISR) and other additional documentary archives. An index of names relating to the ≪Archivio Roncalli-Capovilla≫ completes the list.

Velati M., Giovanni XXIII e la curia romana: stato delle conoscenze e prospettive di ricerca, XXV, 659-694.

We are only at the beginning of the study of relations between Pope John XXIII and the Roman Curia, even if the existence of tensions and disagreements on some of the most important points of papal activity is well known. A serious historical study of these relations requires a better knowledge of the actions taken by the Pope himself and by the Curia staff. The personal papers and correspondence throw light on many previously unknown aspects of relations with Curia offices and officials whileconfirming the main problems pointed out in some recent studies (Riccardi, Miccoli, Alberigo, Melloni). Pope John embodied the best elements of the true pastor, consistent with the oldest traditions of Roman papal government. He accepted the need to collaborate with institutions within the Curia while still being fully aware of their limitations and weaknesses. He did not use his authority in a dictatorial way even against his main opponents in the Curia, such as cardinal Ottaviani. He did not believe in the magic of institutional alchemy, being unconcerned with a reformist programme. He preferred instead, to rely on the unity to be found in daily work towards a common cause, based on human and spiritual agreement. He restored the curial machine to working order after the crisis period under Pius XII. He did not seek to set off the different components of the Church against each other (centre against periphery, Curia against bishops) seeking rather to channel their involvement directly into the epoch-making event of the Vatican Council.

Pfister P. – Treffler G., Das Verhältnis von Papst Johannes XXIII. und Kardinal Julius Döpfner: Versuch einer Annäherung,XXV, 695-718.

In various obituaries Cardinal Julius D.pfner described Pope John XXIII in positive terms. Going on from this starting point, the question has to be asked, how the relations between Döpfner and Pope John XXIII developed in reality. At first blush this question might seem irrelevant, on closer examination however; there are important conclusions to be drawn. Clearly, with the development of relations between the two men, one cannot rule out the possibility that personal influence of the cardinal as well as the influence of the national bishop’s conference and the advising theologians may have had a positive effect. The paper is based on reference to the documents of the so-called ≪Cardinal-Döpfner-Archives≫ at Munich, a part of the Archiepiscopal Archives. Above all, cardinal Döpfner felt bound to follow Pope John XXIII’s wishes in relation to the issues of the renewal of the Church and its responsibilities to its members. Both Döpfner’s contributions during the preparatory period of the council and his efforts to bring the main questions addressed by the council to the attention of the congregation of his archdiocese confirm this thesis. Another indication of Döpfner’s support for John XXIII is that he did not criticize the latter’s ≪Ostpolitik≫ publicly, even though he did not agree with the Pope on this point.

Jossua J.-P., Le pape Jean vivant, XXV, 719-740.

An investigation of the approach and attitudes of Pope Roncalli certainly requires an examination of his style, his gestures, his intellectual position and his deepest intentions. It is also necessary to be aware though, of his charisma, of his gift of being himself, of being spiritually prepared to sustain a role and of carrying out a function of service to others. Pope John’s style was characterised by the simplicity of his every act, even at moments of the greatest solemnity, and by the spirit of service which he often expressed by identifying himself with figures evoked from the past including St. Gregory, St. Francis of Sales and St. Charles Borromeo. Throughout his years on the threshold of the papacy he maintained his own point of view with mildness, without imposing himself, questioning the system and concept of absolute power. He demonstrated his choice of fundamental values through his conduct: hope for all men, truth, but above all, generosity and mercy. His messages to the Church conveyed a universal perspective and ecumenical hope for peace.

Calzolari P.U., Un nuovo linguaggio per parlare agli uomini, XXV, 741-744.

The extraordinary innovations introduced by John XXIII’s encyclical Pacem in terris are presented by the author in this article and brought into association with the current situation of war, serving to highlight the importance of this papal document defined as Pope John’s true spiritual ≪testament≫.

Toschi M., Attualità della Pacem in terris, XXV, 745-756.

At this time of war, when arms have replaced politics in the government of the world, Pacem in terris reminds us that the equation linking war and justice has irretrievably broken and that there is only a tragic sophistry that seeks to keep them together, a sophistry which is overwhelmed by the faces of innocent victims, those innocents, in Pope John’s words, whose cries of ≪Peace≫ reach us from all parts of the world. The primacy of peace is revealed in its full clarity in Pacem in terris. Its power is extraordinary because it does not originate from doctrinal considerations but rather from a reflection on history. Roncalli’s total rejection of war and heartfelt appeal for peace was addressed to all men, not just Christians. This is why any attempt to empty Pacem in terris of its deepest meaning in order to reduce it to a general treatise on peace or to make it the basis for academic discussions on the international order are doomed to failure. Pacem in terris could not be clearer in its evangelical language, a testament of peace without ifs or buts.

Ruggieri G., Proclamazione della pace e confessione di fede, XXV, 757-768.

The paper seeks to reconstruct the theological intention underlying Pacem in terris. According to the author, John XXIII’s message of peace can only be understood within the context of a confession of faith in Jesus Christ, although nonetheless capable of ≪rationality≫ of universal appeal.

Silvestrini A., Una teologia della pace per l’umanità, XXV, 769-774.

The break with the past embodied in the encyclical Pacem in terris is emphasised by the author in a comparison with the preceding and subsequent positions of the Church on the themes touched on in the encyclical. Light is also thrown on the development of the key points of stimulus of Pacem in Terris under the current pontificate of John-Paul II.

Lugaresi L., Studenti cristiani e scuola pagana. Didaskaloi, logoi e philia, dal Discorso di ringraziamento a Origene alla Orazione funebre per Basilio di Gregorio Nazianzeno, XXV, 779-832.

Gregory of Nazianzus devotes a significant part of his funeral oration for Basil (or. 43, 14-24) to reminiscences of their student years in Athens. This article proposes a new interpretation for that part of the oration, in the context of the problem of relations between Christians and the standard education system. Christians attended pagan schools without ever attempting to found schools of their own. This must have created difficulties for them given the pagan inspiration of the traditional school curriculum. Origen’s school at Caesarea seems to have represented a brilliant and original solution to the problem, as described in the Panegyric attributed to Gregory Thaumaturgus, but it was crucially dependent on the exceptional personality of its teacher. In the fourth century, Basil indicates his desire to follow the same inspiration in his Exhortation to the Young, explaining to Christian students how to study the pagan authors. In reality though, his discourse lacks real knowledge of practical educational issues. Gregory of Nazianzus seeks to fill this gap by means of the example of his and Basil’s experience in Athens, arguing that Christian friendship can play a key role in the ≪conversion≫ of the Greek paideia.

Carosio M., Extra ecclesiam nulla salus: il caso Feeney, XXV, 833-876.

This article investigates the case of Leonard Feeney, a 20th century Boston Jesuit who propounded a strict interpretation of the ancient axiom ≪extra ecclesiam nulla salus≫, .there is no salvation outside the Church., leading to his excommunication by Pope Pius XII in 1953. When first enunciated in the early days of Christianity, this doctrine was meant to fight the recurring threat of heresy and schisms within the Church. Its reaffirmation in the context of the USA of the 20th Century was rather originated by a desire to rediscover the purity of the Church’s original teachings and to counteract what was seen as an excessive flexibility to the demands of secular society. However, in the multicultural setting of the United States, it soon gave rise to difficult questions in the relationship between the Catholic, Protestant and Jewish communities as well as undermining the process of integration of Catholics (mostly more recent immigrants) into US society. It was a question of doctrine requiring a doctrinal response, but was treated by the Church in Rome as a disciplinary matter, demonstrating the impossibility of a proper internal debate. The controversy between Feeney’s strict and outspoken position and that of the local hierarchy, keen to avoid a divisive quarrel, exposed a tension between the traditional .centralist. approach of the Catholic Church and a typically American request of ≪due process≫. The reference to the dispute in Lumen Gentium (16), finally saw the issues raised taken out of their local context, contributing to a further stage in the debate on salvation outside the Church and the effect of the development of Catholic doctrine in the Church’s relationship with other religions.

Barbaglio G., L’attuale ricerca storica su Gesù: un’opera monumentale, XXV, 877-896.

The review of the three great tomes making up Meier’s work certainly required a detailed and complex critical analysis, aimed at presenting a considered assessment of both the good points and defects (the latter many fewer than the former) of this monumental and as yet, unfinished work. More than that however, the intention behind this note is to assess the current situation in actual historical research on Jesus, also giving a reasoned account of the author’s own position regarding the key elements of the research, discussed in the large number of studies published over the last twenty years of the Leben-Jesu-Forschung, by now with more than two hundred years of history behind it.

Pennington K., Justice in the Ius commune, XXV, 897-902.

Paolo Prodi’s book explores the concept of justice in medieval thought – a key question for juridical study of that period. The book has a broad sweep. In this essay the author argues that the jurists who wrote about and developed the norms of procedure and the concept of liberty in the medieval period were of central importance for any discussion of justice. Their arguments should always be taken into account when exploring the concept of justice in medieval thought.

Suttner E.Ch., Geht das gegenwärtige Schisma zwischen Katholiken und Orthodoxen auf den 4. Kreuzzug zurück?, XXV, 903-920.

Even at the time of the seven ecumenical Councils common to both the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, there were long periods when the two Churches already considered themselves to be divided by schism. They did not believe however; that the points in dispute affected the essential make-up of the Church and hence, notwithstanding the separation, they considered the other communions as sister Churches, fundamentally guided to the same extent by the Holy Ghost. It was only in the eighteenth  century that the two sides condemned each other on theological grounds, implying a real division in terms of faith. In the Second Vatican Council Catholics theoretically revoked this judgement, although in practice many maintained their previous attitude. During the twentieth century the Orthodox side too, distanced itself from the earlier condemnations. Even so, many still consider that a division of faith remains. In past history however; questions of theology were not the factors estranging social relations between the two (during the Crusades the conflict resulted in bloodshed), giving rise to the break in ecclesiastical communion. Nonetheless, no non-theological factor (not even bloodshed) is capable of changing the doctrine of the faith. It is therefore important to investigate what the different causes of the schism were. Indeed, only those seeking to clarify the true and not just presumed reasons of the division will be able to make a constructive contribution to the process of reconciliation.

Ganzer K., Neuere Forschungen zu Reginald Pole, XXV, 921-928.

In his first volume collecting together a number of different articles, the author looks at several specific aspects of the English cardinal’s life and beliefs: his candidature for the papacy, his legation to England, his financial position, his ≪tolerant≫ stance in theological issues and other subjects. The second volume is an inventory of Pole’s manuscripts. Th.F. Mayer provides us with Pole’s complete correspondence in summary form. The volume covers the period from 1518 to 1546. Mayer’s research in this area constitutes an important contribution to the study of one of the main figures of reform in Italy of the 16th century.

Fattori M.T., L’episcopato bolognese di Prospero Lambertini (1731-1740). Rassegna bibliografica, XXV, 929-946.

The review takes into consideration the historical writings of the last forty years concerned with Prospero Lambertini’s period as Cardinal in Bologna (from 1731 to 1740). In the literature dedicated to his papacy, only those texts have been reviewed which concentrate on aspects and concepts of Lambertini’s thought relating to pastoral government and the application of Tridentine reforms. Having analysed those works which seek to assist the understanding of Lambertini’s whole period in Bologna, articles and texts have been selected which concentrate on the individual and specific aspects of the same period. These aspects can be grouped into three more or less homogeneous categories: firstly, the reform of the diocese in the sense of strengthening the Tridentine institutions of parishes and convents combined with the work of legislation, secondly, pastoral visits and thirdly, his reflections and studies resulting in works with some connection to the Bologna period or whose first draft makes express reference to it. The review ends by setting out a number of possible subjects for research based on Lambertini’s Bologna period.

Foresta P., Liturgia e politica. Alcune riflessioni a margine del volume di Joosten, Das Christkönigsfest, XXV, 947-960.

With his encyclical Quas primas issued on the 11th of December 1925, Pius XI instituted the Feast of Jesus Christ the King, with which he sought to emphasize the absolute sovereignty of Jesus Christ at the same time as condemning Western Society’s movement away from official Catholic doctrine. The monograph by Joosten underconsideration here analyzes the emergence, the liturgical content and the political implications of this papal decree from a long term perspective, spanning the period from the end of the 19th century to the Second Vatican Council.

Faggioli M., Fonti e studi per una storia delle conferenze episcopali tedesche tra Ottocento e Novecento, XXV, 961-986.

This overview of the literature dealing with the history of the German Episcopal Conferences highlights the significant points in the history of one the most important Episcopal conferences in the Catholic Church. These Episcopal meetings were able to give expression to a national-political need for collective and synodal decision-making procedures. In the period between its foundation in 1848 and the end of the 20th Century, it proved of great importance in assisting German Catholic Bishops to face up to the cultural and political challenges of the Catholic Church over the years. These can be summarised as follows: German Catholics’ position as a minority within a predominantly Protestant culture and the Kulturkampf, the ≪secular religion≫ of the Nazi regime and World War II and finally, the moral and material reconstruction of Germany after 1945. The Conference’s ≪political culture≫ and its capacity to involve German theologians meant that it was able to provide an extremely important contribution to the Second Vatican Council. The post-Council reforms introduced structural changes to the Episcopal Conferences. For the German Conference however, this represented a strengthening of its own most important aims and characteristics. As a result it became one of the most authoritative, reliable and receptive bodies in the introduction of reforms in the period immediately following Vatican II.

Alberigo G., Pius XII: uno sconosciuto, XXV, 987-996.

Pius XII and his papacy are subjects which still require further study. The inaccessible nature of certain archive materials or, indeed, simply their non-existence (such as, for instance, Pope Pacelli’s personal documents), makes research even more difficult. Nonetheless, Chenaux’s biography is unsatisfactory even in considering the sources available. The years of training of the young Don Eugenio have not been investigated enough while much space is devoted to the Papacy itself. Dealing as it does with the period following the Second World War, Chenaux undervalues Pius XII’s personal experience and papers, concentrating substantially onlyon great historical events. We continue to know too little of this long and crucial papacy, too little of Pope Pacelli himself and too little of the decisions which, in one way or another, he was required to make.

Zizola G., La nascita dell’Ufficio Stampa della S. Sede. Appunti e testimonianze per una storia: 1953-2003, XXV, 997-1014.

The beginnings of the Holy See’s press office can be traced to the context of relations between the Church, totalitarian regimes and the democratic institutions immediately following the Second World War. The idea of setting up a Press Office had already been considered by the Vatican in 1925 in order to provide a source of anti-fascist interpretation of religious news, particularly in Italy and France. The desire was to remove it from the control of Mussolini’s police which had been able to count on the services of a number of sympathisers within both the Vatican itself and the ≪L’Osservatore Romano≫. Prior to the Vatican’s moves to set up such an office, a news letter providing information on the Vatican had been started by Enrico Pucci, one of the most important prelates in the Roman Curia’s integralist wing. He received regular payments from the Ministry of the Interior for the publication of unofficial news and summaries of the speeches of Pius XI, with the objective of providing a counter-weight to the anti-Fascist line taken by the Vatican news bodies. This initiative saw the formation of the first nucleus of Vaticanists, tolerated out of necessity and used with care. In order to reduce the power of the Pucci clan in the press, Mons. G. B. Montini assigned responsibility for relations between the Holy See and the media to an institutional function, under the control of the Secretariat. This was thus the first Press Office, changed to the Vatican Press Service in 1953, an appendix to the ≪L’Osservatore Romano≫ but still the product of a concept of news and information as having a defensive, apologist and servile function. The attack by .Corriere della Sera. on John XXIII in 1962 (on the instigation of a Roman prelate) was not the last episode deriving from a manipulative view of the media, a view which was challenged by the Second Vatican Council. The strategy of dialogue with the modern process of liberty at length lead to Paul VI’s decision to set up the Holy See’s Press Room in 1966 ≪in order to respond to the news requirements of the modern age≫.