XXVIII (2007)

Ruggieri G., Giuseppe Alberigo 1926-2007, XXVIII, IX-XII.

Alberigo G., Sinodo come liturgia?, XXVIII, 1-40.

The author intends to show how the synodal nature of the Church is not limited to the episcopal dimension, or to the relationships between the Churches, but how it belongs to the Church wholly in its Eucharistic dimension. Thought of in this light, the synodal character of the Church directly involves every believer and every community, however .peripheral. or ≪local≫ it might be. The author therefore suggests the necessity of new perspectives in research, whether historical or theological. In one way, it is necessary to discover the nexus seen between the liturgical assembly and the actual origin of synodal activity in the first and second centuries, a nexus which was subsequently forgotten through the formal ritualization of the ordo ad synodum. In another way, it is necessary to set us free from the residues of universalist ecclesiology in order to renew the understanding of the ekklesia and of the koinonia and to expand the very conception of the liturgy.

Ruggieri G., Il concilio di Ferrara-Firenze e le sue liturgie, XXVIII, 41-54.

In the Council of Ferrara-Firenze there was no true and proper common liturgy between Latin and Byzantine bishops. The Latins never participated in the liturgy of the Byzantine bishops, and these for their part were limited to passive involvement only in some Latin liturgies. Above all they were never actual and proper participantis in sacris. This fact sufficiently demonstrates the ambiguity surrounding the agreement reached at the Council of Ferrara-Florence, principally due to the will of the emperor-king and the Pope. The lack of liturgical communion reflects therefore the singular nature of this ≪imperfect≫ council.

Merlo S., Concilio e sobornost’. Le liturgie al concilio di Mosca del 1917-1918, XXVIII, 55-82.

The course of events at the Council of Moscow of 1917-1918 was heavily influenced by the climate of the times, which was dominated by the events of the Revolution. The political turbulence of those months also had an impact on the liturgies, which were celebrated in a state of martial law. Despite this, the Council fathers still chose, as far as they were able, to formally perform the liturgy, notwithstanding the difficulties of the political situation and pressure from the civil authorities aimed at preventing the liturgy from being performed. A careful examination of the four liturgies formally celebrated at the Council (for the opening, for the inauguration, for the election of the patriarch and for his coronation) makes clear the centrality of the liturgical aspect to the Council, and evidences the continuity between the moment of Council/assembly and that of liturgy/Eucharist. Such an analysis also highlights the presence of the people of God at the event of the Council, expressed in their participation in the liturgy. As a result of this scrutiny, it appears that liturgy and Council were strictly connected. As studies by Evdokimov, Afanasiev and Florovskij have shown, this connection is rooted in Orthodox theology, which assigns to the liturgy a central position, in so far as it is constitutive of the Church as the people of God.

Velati M., Sinodalità e liturgia nel movimento ecumenico, XXVIII, 83-102.

The article explores certain aspects of the relationship between the synodal dimension and the liturgy in the history of Christian ecumenism in the twentieth century. In this history, liturgy represented a strong element of unity from one point of view, but looked at from the other side it was one of the most rooted and problematic elements of division. The events of the great ecumenical assemblies show a progressive awareness of the importance of the liturgical aspect, which represents a meeting point and a space in which common interests can be recognized and decisions made. It is further characterized by a specific modulation, the two principal elements of which appear to be the invocation of the Spirit (charismatic aspect) and the request for pardon (penitential aspect). The synodal dimension and the liturgy also interweave in all other aspects of the ecumenical dialogue, amongst which the most notable is that of the bilateral dialogues. In the dialogue between the Churches, the liturgical aspect represents the ≪crisis≫, but at the same time a fulfilment, however precarious, of the ecumenical idea.

Turbanti G., La liturgia nella celebrazione dei «Piccoli Sinodi» di Lercaro, XXVIII, 103-132.

The article is an enquiry into the ≪Small Synods≫ which were celebrated annually in the diocese of Bologna between 1961 and 1965, according to the will of Cardinal G. Lercaro, as partially conveyed in documents in the ≪Archive of G. Lercaro≫, which are preserved by the John XXIII Foundation for Religious Studies in Bologna. That of the .Small Synods. was an interesting initiative because it anticipated the experience of the diocesan synods, which were celebrated in many dioceses after the Council Vatican II. The article seeks to identify which were the sources of inspiration for Lercaro and what were the fundamental reasons which drove him to convene the synods in this particular manner, more restricted but more frequent. Particular attention is paid to the liturgical forms of the .Small Synods., considering also the significance that the liturgy had in the rediscovery, in the years after Vatican II, of the communio ecclesiology. Subsequent review of the content and the form of these synods makes it possible to reveal a development from a more institutional view of the synods to a more community-minded conception of them, as assemblies and forms of participation for the clergy and for the faithful to the  leadership of the diocese. This experience was interrupted after the Vatican II and since the dismissal of Lercaro at the beginning of 1968. The diocese of Bologna has no longer had a true synodal experience.

Scatena S., «Sapere ascoltare e sapere essere»: la liturgia alla conferenza di Medellin, XXVIII, 133-176.

The essay offers a reconstruction of the liturgical moments of the Medellin conference, seen by the majority of participants in terms of a new Pentecost for the Latin- American Church. Based on documentation preserved in the CELAM archives and on unedited accounts from some of the participants, the article focuses in particular on the inspiration and the guiding criteria of a daily liturgy which was conceived as an integral and integrating moment of the 1968 assembly. The liturgy, along with the mecanica de trabajo, favoured the cooperation, in a climate of great freedom, of bishops and laymen, men and women, Catholic and non-Catholic Christians, and represents an essential key to understand this event.

Zamagni G., La pluralità raccolta. Sinodalità e liturgia al Sinodo delle diocesi tedesche di Würzburg (1971-1975), XXVIII,177-198.

In this article, the author surveys the Synod of the German dioceses held in Würzburg from January 3rd 1971 to November 23rd 1975, and follows it step by step through its bulletin Synode. This ≪spiritual event≫ – as the Synod was understood to be – is studied here with particular attention given to the liturgical celebrations which took place, and show how these were closely intertwined with different conceptions of the Church and of its relationship with the other Christian confessions and with the world. In particular, the transition from a Catholic ecclesiocentric view to a liturgy in dialogue with the world of the Reformation can be clearly seen.

Indelicato A., Sinodalità e liturgia: il sinodo post-conciliare della diocesi di Noto, XXVIII, 199-216.

The post-conciliar synods were aimed at giving the diocese the new idea of the Church as a communio, as people of God. According to this ecclesiology, the local Church is a complete part of the universal Church. The ecclesiology of Sacrosanctum concilium shows that liturgy is an essential and fundamental reality for the local Church: the synod can be seen as liturgy or as an event made of liturgical acts, performed in order to show the unity of the body of Christ and the synodality in the Church. The synod of Noto is paradigmatic for this renewed synodal idea, thanks to the liturgy as such and to the very institutional architecture of the synod: participants, time, places, context and recipients of the synod.

Izbicki T.M., The Politics of a Conclave: The Papal Election of 1447, XXVIII, 277-284.

The conclave of 1447, following the death of Pope Eugenius IV, is a useful microcosm for the factionalization in the College of Cardinals during the Renaissance. We can trace its lines of division through a report by Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, an imperial envoy and later Pope Pius II. The college was small; but it tended to divide over issues of policy, while also reflecting the alliances of cardinals with the great Roman clans: the Orsini and the Colonna. The college was small enough to accept an unexpected compromise candidate, the Cardinal of Bologna, who became Pope Nicholas V, one of the great patrons of Renaissance culture.

Merlo S., La questione georgiana al concilio di Mosca, XXVIII, 285-322.

The article analyses the debate over the restoration of the Georgian autocephaly, which emerged at the end of the 19th century, became more intense after the first Russian revolution, and culminated in the renewal of the autocephalous Georgian Church following the collapse of the autocracy. The visual angle is that of the debate with in the Russian Church, which the Georgian exarchate was part of until 1917, leading to the formation of the 18th commission of the 1917-1918 Council of the Russian Church, which preceded the ≪organization of the Orthodox Church in the southern Caucasus, in relation to the proclamation by the Georgians of their autocephaly≫. The analysis of the Georgian issue before and during the 1917-1918 Council of Moscow does not only constitute an episode of the emancipation of a small national Church from a tutelage lasting over a hundred years, but also supplies the key to interpreting the imperial perception which the Russian Church had of itself. In this sense the Council was the watershed between two epochs, in so far as it took place right at the moment in which the imperial dimension ceased in the crucial passage from autocracy to the Soviet regime.

Komonchak J., Benedict XVI and the Interpretation of Vatican II, XXVIII, 323-338.

The History of Vatican II, edited by G. Alberigo, had been the target of some severe criticisms and some expected Pope Benedict XVI to side with the critics. In his speech to the Roman Curia, 22 December 2005, however, while distinguishing between a ≪hermeneutics of discontinuity≫ and a ≪hermeneutics of reform≫, the Pope himself presented the work of the Council, especially with regard to the Church’s relation to the world, in terms both of ≪novelty≫ or ≪dynamism≫ and of ≪continuity≫ or ≪fidelity≫, a position that cannot betaken as a repudiation of Alberigo’s History.

Hünermann P., Der «Text». Eine Ergänzung zur Hermeneutik des II.Vatikanischen Konzils, XXVIII, 339-358.

The article stresses the category ≪Text≫ within the hermeneutics of Vatican II. The origin of this article was a critical discussion of Herders Theologischer Kommentar zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil published by the author and B.J. Hilberath in 2004/5. The article refers especially to t. 5, 1-102. The category ≪text≫ is used in the new way in which recent philological and philosophical research have established ≪text≫ as the highest form of language beyond words and sentences with its multiple dimensions. Therefore text cannot be understood simply from the intention of the author but includes situation, the reader or partner, certain actions etc. This understanding of ≪text≫ as such has consequences for the interpretation. The theological hermeneutics used to interpret Vatican II generally includes traditional distinctions between dogmatized sentences and not defined parts. The question is whether the Council did not generate a new type of ≪text≫ with a new pragmatic. There are convergent reasons for this theses. The very special .pastoral. character of the ≪text≫ makes the documents of Vatican II similar to the textual genus of recent encyclicals and their pragmatic character. The final chapters describe this new type of conciliar teaching as ≪constitutional texts≫ and exclude misunderstandings in using this terminology.

Theobald Ch., Enjeux herméneutiques des débats sur l’histoire du concile Vatican II, XXVIII, 339-380.

The article starts by confronting the History of the Second Vatican Council (Alberigo) and the Theological commentary on its texts (Hünermann / Hilberath) and goes on to examine the normativity of the Council for us. This normativity cannot be established by referring to the very letter of the Conciliar documents or to their constitutional form, but must be sought in the relationship between the corpus of texts and the history of the conciliar process, which goes far beyond this corpus; only an active application of the principle of ≪pastorality≫ (John XXIII) enables us to perceive the theological stakes of the Council as an event and of its texts.

Ruggieri G., Recezione e interpretazioni del Vaticano II. Le ragioni di un dibattito, XXVIII, 381-406.

The author shows what, in his opinion, are the reasons for the current debate on the interpretation of Vatican II. The debate has its origin in the character of the ≪turning≫ of the Council compared to the ecclesiastic traditions of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries. But it also originates in the different views on the nature of a council. In fact, while on the one hand a council is reduced, even quite unconsciously, to just a governing organ of the Church, on the other hand the council’s role of repraesentatio ecclesiae is underlined, the council being seen as a manifestation of the Church in its most profound essence, as a communion event.

Vallin P., Il Cristianesimo. Grande Atlante. Une promenade, XXVIII, 407-422.

The article points out the original characteristics of this ≪Grande Atlante≫ when compared to similar enterprises in the history of Christianity, as well as highlighting the development undergone by the illustrations throughout the course of the expositions. The Atlas is divided into three parts, each covering the whole twenty centuries but from different viewpoints, which are commented upon with interest in this article. The diversity of the contributions and of their authors in each part, with respect to their nationalities and religious affiliations, is striking. The author of the present article has endeavoured to set in some relief the contributions which seem to contain new information with regard to the present state of research, especially in areas which are usually little dealt with. Without giving an exhaustive picture of the history of Christianity in the various parts of the world, the Grande Atlante has avoided succumbing to a Western European provincialism, allotting to Italy, one may add, only a very moderate part. The main aim of the work is one of documentation and information. However, the author of this article notes with approval that several of the work’s contributors – particularly Giuseppe Alberigo, whose paper marks one of his last completed writings – have given personal evaluations regarding the future good health, or otherwise, of Christian institutions and theologies – especially, though not exclusively, Catholics belonging to the Roman Church.

Zizola G., Carlo Carretto nella vita della Chiesa cattolica in Italia, XXVIII, 423-442.

The figure of Carlo Carretto (1910-1988) is described from the viewpoint of the intersection between the end of Christendom and religious reform during the tormented events involving the Italian Catholic Church in the twentieth century. Carlo Carretto’s principle activities, in the period from the end of the Second world war to the ‘eighties, are described as being halfway between utopia and history, prophetism and institution. The crisis of 1952-1954, following the local elections in the city of Rome, is interpreted as the conclusive event in a process which had already begun in 1948 within the associationism of the Catholic youth.

Morselli M., Israel Zoller. Il Rabbino che non si è convertito, XXVIII, 443-450.

Israel Zoller (1881-1956), the past Chief Rabbi of Rome who in 1945 became Catholic, thought that conversion from Judaism to Christianity was impossible. Why then he baptised himself? The article tries to explain the Lurianic-Sabbatian background of his messianic project: the teshuvah of the Church.

Melloni A., Concili, ecumenicità e storia. Note di discussione, XXVIII, 509-542.

The note reviews the literature and the historical-critical discussion on the qualification of councils. On the publication of the new edition of the Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Generaliumque Decreta promoted by Giuseppe Alberigo, of which so far only the first volume in the Corpus Christianorum series has been printed, some objections have been raised regarding the use of the expression ≪general≫ council as well as doubts about the fact that the work aims to produce a new conciliar .list. in which the ecumenicity is confirmed or otherwise according to the particular criteria of one or the other Christian denominations. The note shows how the term ≪general≫ was used throughout the debate on the theme of the ecumenicity of the councils (from Bellarmine and John XXIII to Paul VI), and how the work in question reapplies this method in a critically more advanced way to the texts which had already been considered on the eve of Vatican II in the first edition of COD.

Fattori M.T., «Acciò i vescovi latini siano ben informati di tutto»: la seconda edizione del De Synodo dioecesana di Benedetto XIV, XXVIII, 543-608.

The highlighting of the three different phases of the review of the tract De Synodo dioecesana by Benedict XIV and the process which led to the accretion of the 1748 first edition in the lead up to the second edition of 1755, offers opportunities for a global re-reading of the work of the synod. The editorial process which lead Pope Lambertini to add new parts between the end of 1748 and the middle of 1754, allows us to better understand the ratio of the work: it was aimed at the bishops and curial congregations in order to supply them with a complete picture of the law, to highlight burning issues or controversial areas in which it was better to avoid legislating, and to anchor the bishops’ action to a solid legal basis. From the editorial process were excluded numerous materials which have remained unedited and were destined for the Latin bishops in whose diocese were present clergy and believers of the eastern rite. The philological approach allows the highlighting of Pope Lambertini’s ecclesiological vision, a stage in the development of Catholic thought, as well as the Petrin function and the role of the Roman ministries.

Fatokun S.A., Historical Sketch of Pentecostal Movements in Nigeria, XXVIII, 609-634.

Nigeria. The ≪Giant of Africa≫ occupies a very significant position in the history of the Pentecostal movement in Africa. In the light of this, the paper attempts a systematic historical reconstruction of the emergence, growth and development of the Pentecostal movement in Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the south-west – the birth place of the earliest form of Pentecostalism in the nation. The paper locates the origin of Pentecostalism in Nigeria in an indigenous setting. The first form of Pentecostalism in pre-colonial Nigeria is identified in the rise of African indigenous prophetic-healing movements between 1916-1930, a number of which later became full-fledged African independent Pentecostal denominations. Between 1931 and 1963, a number of American and European classical Pentecostal denominations visited the country and entered into affiliation with some of these indigenous movements. From the country’s 1970 charismatic revival, emerged various independent and trans-denominational charismatic ministries, a number of which metamorphosised in the 1980s into fully-fledged Neo-Pentecostal/charismatic Churches. From 1990 to date, Nigeria has witnessed a very high rate of proliferation of independent Pentecostal/charismatic Churches. The paper concludes that Pentecostalism is the most vibrant movement in Nigerian Christianity, influencing positively both non-Pentecostal Christian denominations and non-Christian religious organisations.

Casas S., La actuacion del episcopado espahol en el Concilio Vaticano II en los recuerdos de Jacinto Argaya, obispo de Mondonedo-Ferrol, XXVIII, 635-662.

Jacinto Argaya, bishop of Mondoñedo-Ferrol, wrote his Memoirs of the Council while the Second Vatican Council was taking place, and recorded the conciliar discussions and atmosphere with great fidelity. The memoirs were part of a larger project which Argaya pursued in the years following the Council. The project consisted of the creation of a Conciliar Archive to contain all the material that Argaya had gathered during and after the Second Vatican Council. While the Council was being celebrated, Argaya regularly sent reports about its progress to the Nuncio in Spain; he pertained to the Commission of Interior Affairs of the Spanish episcopate and was designated to maintain contact with the African and French bishops. He was frequently present in the Domus Mariae meetings. Based on Argaya’s Memoirs of the Council and other Spanish sources on the Council, we attempt to determine Argaya’s appraisal of the work and role of the Spanish episcopate in the Second Vatican Council, as well as the corrective measures which, in his view, should have been taken. The absence of a visible leader, the language difficulties, the lack of internal unity, the little work done between conciliar sessions, and the delay in the constitution of the episcopate into a Bishops’ Conference, are some of the failings that Argaya identifies in his Memoirs.

Ravent.s Giralt J., Algunas referencias relativas a la sinodalitat dentro de la tradición conciliar tarraconense, XXVIII, 663-678.

Christianity made its first appearance in Roman Tarragon in the final third of the 2nd century, and was already giving the impression of being a Church in the phase of progressive organisation, as attested to by the acts of martyrdom of Bishop Fruttuosus (259) and by the archaeological remains; a metropolitan Church, which carried on its activities across the extensive territory of Hispania Citerior which made up the Tarragonese province. Amongst its principle characteristics was, in particular, the synodal aspect in the constant practice of the provincial synods. The first documented council took place in Saragozza in 380, while the first synodal texts from the province date from the Council of Tarragon in 519, which opened a period of remarkable fertility which was to be interrupted by the Arab invasion at the beginning of the 8th century. With the restoration of the metropolitan seat (1091), and because of the impact of the Gregorian reform, synodal practice started once more, to reach its peak of development in the 13th century. Tarragon became known as Caput et mater totius provinciae. The patriarch John of Aragon (1330) ordered the collection of provincial constitutions. A new boost was given by the 4th Lateran Council and by the reception of the Tridentine, which re-launched synodal activity, but it was abruptly interrupted in 1757 because of regalism and the growing power of the Roman curia to the detriment of the metropolite. This was despite the persistent desire to continue the synodal meetings, even to the point of proposing a sort of ≪informal celebration≫ on the basis of epistolary consultations (1859). This was a long tradition of provincial councils and diocesan synods in which pastoral solicitude and ecclesiastic communion with the Bishop of Rome clearly appears; a tradition which originates with the consultation of Bishop Ascanio with Pope Ilarius in 465, and continues to the present day. Recently, in 1995, Archbishop Ramon Torrella, with papal approval, convened the latest Tarragonese provincial council with the intention of re-launching the lines of strength and the great intuitions of Vatican II and there was wide participation on the part of laymen and laywomen. The difficulty of recognition and interference by the Spanish Episcopal Conference have, however, clearly shown that the recognition of the effective exercise of synodality is still a long way off.

Vian G.M., Valla e la donazione di Costantino tra storia e apologia, XXVIII, 679-686.

With reference to a critical note by M. Regoliosi published in ≪Cristianesimo nella storia≫ regarding the book La donazione di Costantino by G.M. Vian, the author replies by denying that he had minimised Lorenzo Valla’s criticism of the document attributed to the first Christian emperor, and instead affirming that the Regoliosi note was the result of a distorted reading of the book itself.

García Fernández M., The Roman Catholic Church in the History of Spain. Historical research and bibliographic notes,XXVIII, 687-724.

This article tries to explain the influence of the Church in Spanish history (centuries 16th-20th), looking at its position in that historical period in which the clergy possessed great importance not only as an essential element of religious life but also as one of the principal agents of Spain’s social and economic structures. As a result the study of the Church in Spain is not limited to the history of religion but has also had a decisive influence on political history, as well as on the history of the mentality of the people: Catholicism was the people’s religion as well as being the expression of their collective conscience and the most important ingredient in national cohesion.

Tauran card. J.-L., Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Journal de France, I, 1945-1948, XXVIII, 725-730.

The author outlines the course of action of the Nuncio in Paris, A.G. Roncalli, as reconstructed from the journals kept by the Italian diplomat while in France: his non-interference in the internal affairs of the French Republic, but strong effort for good relations between Church and State and especially for the defence of the Catholic Church’s liberty. Noting how the Nuncio’s concerns increased around the year 1947, as in the cases of the ≪nouvelle théologie≫ and the ≪worker priests≫ movement, Tauran finds that for Roncalli, during his sojourn in Paris, the pastoral dimension of his diplomatic service was always a priority but was also connected with the international and diplomatic side of his mission.

Theobald Ch., Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Journal de France, I, 1945-1948, XXVIII, 731-740.

This reading of the first part of the apostolic nuncio Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli’s ≪Journal de France≫ (1945-1948) highlights three ecclesiological and theological elements apparent in his work: his pastoral conception of the diplomatic charge entrusted to him, his pastoral presence in the French Church, and his personal spirituality. Evoking these elements serves to answer the question of how the man revealed in these pages could become the successor of Pius XII and convoke the Second Vatican Council.