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https://www.rivisteweb.it/issn/1126-9200/issue/7979

Table of Contents number 1, 2020, January-June

Lorenzo Saraceno
«Eunuchi per il regno dei cieli»

The decision to abstain from sexual relations on the part of a married couple who decide to follow a life of Christian asceticism raises the need to consider whether the statement «eunuchs for the heavenly kingdom» should be understood as the evangelical basis for Christian chastity, in the same way as a prelate interprets it in his/her theological-spiritual presentation when taking religious vows, or instead as a radicalisation of Jesus’ teaching about the value of marriage in the light of the idea of being “one fleshµ, which in the narration of the creation enriches sexual union, as opposed to reducing it to mere remedium concupiscentiae. An examination of the New Testament tradition seems to affirm multiple anthropological and spiritual interpretations in this respect.

Federica Candido
L’elogio della castità e l’obbedienza della sposa al marito: riflessioni intorno alla continenza coniugale tra IV e V secolo

According to this tenet, the role of women in the early church was circumscribed by specific limitations and in a subordinate position within the marriage. As is known, marriage was for a long time an institution exclusive to aristocratic families alone, granted to those who had a legacy to be passed on. One of the various aspects concerning the phenomenon of ascetic practices, was conjugal continence, which played an important role particularly in the fourth and fifth centuries. Considering that a wife was subordinate to her husband in a hierarchical relationship in late antiquity, the article discusses the ways in which Pelagius, Jerome, Augustine and Gregory of Nazianzus reported the experiences of a continent marriage in which it was the woman (respectively Celantia, Artemia, Ecdicia and Gorgonia) who decided to refrain from physical relations with her husband.

Ioan Cozma
Le famiglie monastiche “doppieµ nel monachesimo tardoantico e bizantino

This paper analyses some forms of mixed gender cohabitation in late antiquity and Byzantine monasticism. While not explicitly defined, these typologies demonstrate how, by use of a metaphorical language, family ties were preserved within the monastic “family,µ being traceable in both the monastic lexicon and in the organization and functioning of monasteries. The text highlights some cases of cohabitation and, in particular, how the relations between men and women were managed in the first Egyptian monasteries and in the monasteries founded by Basil of Caesarea. The paper presents the main stages in which the prohibition of cohabitation between men and women was established in the Byzantine world, as well as the way in which, despite the canonical and civil ban, double monasteries continued to exist even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

Franco Veronese
«Quod coniugatis carnali copulae indifferenter servire non conveniat» La moralizzazione della sessualità coniugale nell’“Institutio laicalisµ di Giona di Orléans (anni Venti del IX secolo)

Jonas of Orléans’ Institutio laicalis, a moral treaty for the lay noblemen in the Carolingian empire, deals extensively with marriage and conjugal life. In his view of marriage, Jonas seems to accord little room to sexuality. Nevertheless, the chapters consecrated to it are a key to his configuration of the proper relationships between husband and wife. His discourse on conjugal sexuality is examined here in the light of the political and cultural context for which it was contemplated. In regulating sexuality, Jonas made his contribution to the Carolingians’ efforts to seize control over the physical and social reproduction of aristocratic groups.

Cesare Alzati
Consapevolezza misterica e spiritualità matrimoniale nel ministero coniugato del clero ambrosiano in età altomedioevale

From approximately 1088, the introduction, also to Milan, of celibacy for the clergy (fostered by the ecclesiastical reform) marked the end for the Ambrosian Church of a centuries-old lifestyle, disciplined by the canons (as in the East) and rooted in the ancient rule of worship, common to the whole Christian people. The disappearance of the legitimately married ministry meant the loss of what had previously been, in the ecclesial community, the living paradigm of the conjugal status (characterized by the exclusivity of the spouses’ reciprocal belonging, demonstrated by absolute chastity before the nuptials and rigorous monogamy, even in the case of widowhood, by respect for the female figure in the person of the presbytera and by the use of marriage in harmony with worship and its celebrations). This change was not devoid of consequences also in regard to the cultural and theological perceptions of marriage.

Robin Moens
Complementarità contabilizzabile La devozione dei coniugi nelle Fiandre: Arnolfo IV di Oudenaarde e Alicia di Rozoy (1175-1275)

Arnold IV of Oudenaarde and his wife Alice of Rozoy, members of the baronial nobility, should largely be given credit for opening the world of the personal devotion of the transalpine medieval nobility to the historian, permitting us to quantify (in a certain measure) their religious activities, which demonstrate an intense and vast collaboration between the spouses and their complementary roles, along with their spirituality hidden behind the numbers of donations, foundations and “vocationsµ in the family, and were mainly centred on liturgical prayer and charity, thus trying to integrate religion into their cities better.

Giuliano Marchetto
Il matrimonio “sine opere coniugali” tra diritto e teologia (XII-XIII secolo)

A marriage sine opere coniugali was legitimized by canon lawyers and theologians, but it was generally believed that there was no marriage without consent to carnal intercourse. This belief called into question the perfection of Mary and Joseph’s union. Therefore, the canonist Gratian posited that marriage was begun with consent but ratified only by sexual intercourse. Hence, lawyers and theologians began to dispute the perfection of an unconsummated marriage and to discuss nuptial consent. In this discussion, the juridical concept of potestas corporis played a central role.

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https://www.rivisteweb.it/issn/1126-9200/issue/7749

Table of Contents number 2, 2019, July-December

Luigi Canetti
Cristianizzazione e culture fra tarda antichità e alto medioevo

The article emphasizes the need to find new epistemological categories in order to redefine the relationship between medieval history and religious history, which has been experiencing a crisis for almost forty years. After providing a broad historiographical overview and some concrete examples, the author suggests restarting from fields of research, such as the history of religions, ethno-linguistics, cognitive science and evolutionary biology, that have been able to underline the great heuristic potential in the study of religious experience on the basis of new explicative paradigms of cultural change.

Marina Montesano
Culture popolari e dimensione religiosa

The concept of popular culture and that, closely linked to it, of popular religion have been discussed in many conferences and essays, especially since the Seventies. The historiographical discussion has taken place within a debate that had already involved philosophical, ethnographic and ethno-linguistic disciplines. This essay retraces its fortunes, dwelling on some of the most important contributions, and concludes discussing the fruitfulness and topicality of this issue.

Isabella Gagliardi
Santi, culti e santuari

The essay traces the historiography of saints, cults and sanctuaries in Italy from the nineteen-seventies, identifying in the works of Giovanni Miccoli a very important initial turning point, and then continues citing the pioneering studies of Sofia Boesch Gajano, Gabriella Zarri, André Vauchez, Roberto Rusconi, Grado Giovanni Merlo and Anna Benvenuti. It highlights the birth of some associations – in particular the AISSCA – which have had the merit of presenting the historiography of these issues in an innovative way. We then identify some particularly successful thematic strands, from that relating to the experiences of women, to that favouring the spatial outlook as a privileged point of view, to arrive at the review of studies dedicated to Christian shrines in Italy.

Francesco Salvestrini
Per un bilancio della più recente storiografia sul monachesimo

The paper traces the historiography on the Medieval Italian monastic world (Benedictine and Carthusian) mainly produced from the beginning of the third millennium. The text presents the main trends in research which, in the author’s opinion, characterise today’s cultural orientations, within a context of profound renewal and more intense contacts between Italian and foreign scholars, and in the perspective of the future overcoming of the traditional contrast between erudite memoirs of a confessional matrix and scientific production, but also of a progressive divergence between the investigations into the history of the regular religious environment and Italian Medieval studies as a whole

Maria Teresa Dolso
L’impatto degli ordini mendicanti nella storia del basso medioevo

The work focuses on the role attributed to the friars in the last 40 years of historiography. The writer begins with a consideration of a work published in 1974, which, incidentally, also corresponds to the first year of the period under examination. The work is entitled Storia religiosa, by Giovanni Miccoli, in which Francis of Assisi and the order he established occupy a fundamental role. While Miccoli recognizes that within the Franciscan experience there is «a unique and exceptional fact in Italian religious history», other renowned medieval scholars, such as Ovidio Capitani and his students (Dolcini, Lambertini, Tabarroni, Todeschini), see instead in Francis a «new anthropology». They examine the novitas of Franciscan thought and how it translates on a political, economic and ethical level. This wealth of study and a thorough historiographic framework, in which the centrality of mendicants is recognized in various ways, has, however, encountered corroboration within the most important works on the history of Christianity from the 1990s until 2010, which appear to be untouched by this mare magnum of specialist historiography. This fact leaves us with a significant intellectual gap upon which reflection is due.

Laura Gaffuri
Il cristianesimo nelle città comunali e signorili. Connessioni, intrecci, sovrapposizioni (secoli XII-XV)

The contribution starts out from the observation that during the Middle Ages the most significant moments in the lives of the faithful, birth, marriage and death, solemnized by the celebration of the sacraments, led to an abundant production of writings and forms of registration. The Church gradually established the practice of compiling registries for the baptized, the wedded and the deceased (in its session of November 11, 1563, the Council of Trent ordered registries to be kept for baptisms and marriages while the registering of deaths was made mandatory in 1614). Over the past few decades the study of these sources has resulted in an extensive historiography, which is briefly presented in this essay, although it does not consider the topic of marriage registrations. “Writings concerning the deceasedµ are mainly represented by wills, which for the past fifty years have been the subject of special attention.

Maria Clara Rossi
Riconoscere e registrare. Le scritture medievali della nascita, della vita e della morte

The article examines the development of the attention paid to the history of laypeople by the historiography of medieval Italy in the second half of the twentieth century. The extended interest of the research in laypeople was related to the ties with social sciences suggested by historiographers of medieval Italy, but also to the Catholic theological renewal culminating in the Vatican II Council. The main stages in this new approach are followed: from its greatest momentum (1960-1990), to a more difficult phase, which began in the 1990s, when the interest in the religious dimension of medieval laypeople seems gradually to diminish. The article underlines, among the soundest results achieved in this field, the acquisition of a better articulated image of medieval laity and the focus on the central role played by people’s choice of a semi-religious life. Finally, it points out, of the paths of enquiry that may still be profitably taken, those linked to research into the ties between laypeople’s religious experience and their locality, and those concerning the dialectic between the context of life at home and conventual life as conflicting, yet inseparable, strained but significant, worlds.

Michele Pellegrini
Religione domestica, religione in comunità. I laici nella storiografia religiosa sul medioevo italiano: note di lettura

The article examines the development of the attention paid to the history of laypeople by the historiography of medieval Italy in the second half of the twentieth century. The extended interest of the research in laypeople was related to the ties with social sciences suggested by historiographers of medieval Italy, but also to the Catholic theological renewal culminating in the Vatican II Council. The main stages in this new approach are followed: from its greatest momentum (1960-1990), to a more difficult phase, which began in the 1990s, when the interest in the religious dimension of medieval laypeople seems gradually to diminish. The article underlines, among the soundest results achieved in this field, the acquisition of a better articulated image of medieval laity and the focus on the central role played by people’s choice of a semi-religious life. Finally, it points out, of the paths of enquiry that may still be profitably taken, those linked to research into the ties between laypeople’s religious experience and their locality, and those concerning the dialectic between the context of life at home and conventual life as conflicting, yet inseparable, strained but significant, worlds.

Vera von Falkenhausen
La Chiesa greca nell’Italia meridionale e nella Sicilia bizantina e postbizantina

The article provides an overview of the last fifty years of research concerning the history of the Greek Church in Sicily from the sixth to the fifteenth century. Particular attention is paid to the publication of unpublished, or recently discovered, sources: theological, liturgical, hagiographic and hymn texts composed and copied there (together with palaeographic investigations into manuscript dissemination and the geographical locations of scriptoria), archival documents, inscriptions and lead seals. Some brief reference has also been made to the construction of churches for the Greek rite, and to their decoration.

Francesco Panarelli
Religione e culture nel Mezzogiorno medievale: i vescovi e le diocesi latine

The concept of popular culture and that, closely linked to it, of popular religion have been discussed in many conferences and essays, especially since the nineteen-seventies. The historiographical discussion has taken place within a debate that already involved philosophical, ethnographic and ethno- linguistic disciplines. This essay retraces its fortunes, dwelling on some of the most important contributions, and concludes with the fruitfulness and topicality of this issue.

Amalia Galdi
Temi e problemi della storiografia sul monachesimo latino nel Mezzogiorno dei secoli XI-XIII

Latin monasticism, in all its aspects, has been one of the most widely studied historiographical subjects concerning Southern Italy during recent decades. New sources and new hermeneutic levels have made it possible to know more about this topic and, in particular, its peculiarities and its “inclusionµ within the Italian and European monastic context. This essay proposes a status quaestionis on the research into this subject and the historiographical discussion, which involves especially some monastic institutions (such as SS. Trinità di Cava, S. Maria di Montevergine and S. Maria di Pulsano) in Southern Italy from the 11th to the 13th century. In point of fact, they are characterized by common paths, such as their origins, yet also by later, different developments.

André Vauchez
Les tâches actuelles de l’histoire du christianisme médiéval: quelques réflexions en guise de conclusion

 

qsrm (1)
https://www.rivisteweb.it/issn/1126-9200/issue/7749

Table of Contents number 1, 2019, January-June

Dal «Medioevo cristiano» alla «Storia religiosa» del medioevo
(a cura di Raimondo Michetti e Andrea Tilatti)

Enrico Artifoni
The Middle Ages as a Period and a Problem: the Role of the Importance of Religion as Seen in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

This article traces a path in the Italian medieval historiography in the first half of the twentieth century in order to reveal some ways in which the religious dimension contributed to the reflection on the characteristic features of the Middle Ages. Among the problems treated are: municipal conflicts described in terms of conflicts between the State and the Church; heresy as a factor of modernization in Volpe’s historiography; Ernesto Buonaiuti’s role; the attempts made by Giorgio Falco and Raffaello Morghen to explain the Middle Ages in a coherent way.

Raffaele Savigni
Culture, Political Languages and Society in the Early Middle Ages

This paper analyzes how the scholarly Italian literature on the early Middle Ages produced over the last forty years focuses on culture, political languages and Christian society. The analysis highlights the marginal role of such research within Italian medieval studies and the need to sustain the study of ecclesiology, theological controversies and biblical exegesis, as is the case in other European countries (where some of these research fields have already been examined and abandoned while others are only now beginning to emerge). The Carolingian society perceived itself as Ecclesia, namely as a society guided by Christian values, in which the sacraments marked the main stages in life, and the social roles of kings, counts and fathers of families were understood and moulded as religious duties. A wide range of fields were dominated by the reference to Christian principles: political and economic languages, besides processes of the construction of historical memory, of ethnic and political identities and of space (often perceived as being defined by sacred places). However, at the same time, from the ninth century, the concept of ecclesia was increasingly used to designate not only the Christian community but mainly the sacred building where the faithful gathered. The “Middle Ages of the Cathedrals” was born, while an ecclesiastical territoriality was defined in more precise terms.

Francesco Mores
«Storia religiosa» and Historiography. A Return to Croce?

Moving from the footnotes to the “Storia religiosa” by Giovanni Miccoli, this essays analyses the connection between religious history and historiography. An account weighing up the Storia religiosa, which appeared in «Quaderni storici» in 1970, is highly important: in the Storia, attention was paid to the history of dioceses, bishops and the history of religious life as the history of the Church. This link has much to do with the role of Benedetto Croce in Italian culture. It is not merely by chance that, for Giovanni Miccoli, a book deeply influenced by Croce (“Arnaldo da Brescia nelle fonti del secolo XII” by Arsenio Frugoni) was fundamental. Croce was the author of a fundamental lesson on the hierarchy of sources and was also responsible for identifying the relationship between historical method and the definition of what is truly a source. Through the Storia religiosa, this essays questions what remains today of the thinking of Benedetto Croce.

Attilio Bartoli, Langeli Maria, Teresa Brolis, Gianmarco De Angelis
The Sources of Religious History: from Documents to Historiography

The three authors of this paper carry out some reflections on the relationship between editions of documentary sources and medieval historiography. Focusing on the Early and High Middle Ages, the period traditionally privileged by the editions of charters and ecclesiastical cartularies, De Angelis conducts a comprehensive historiographical and critical evaluation. Brolis closely observes some of the main historiographical tendencies with respect to the Late Middle Ages, assuming a persepective inspired by her personal research experience. Finally, Bartoli Langeli reflects on the attitude of Italian medievalists towards the philological activity concerning sources, evaluating it positively.

Carlo Delcorno
Religious Literature and Medieval Society

Medieval religious texts were an important source of linguistic and philological study from the sixteenth century. An extensive field of research and a new methodological approach were disclosed by some prominent scholars in the twentieth century (De Luca, Getto, Pozzi and Miccoli). Both collective historical works (e.g. “Storia d’Italia”, including Miccoli’s “Storia religiosa”) and a general survey of Italian literature show an increasing interest in the religious mentality and practice. Moreover, women’s studies have inspired a series of important publications on female forms of religion. Several studies have demonstrated that religious patterns, particularly biblical sources, inspired the major writers in the fourteenth century (Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio). The bulk of the research concerns the texts that directly expressed the spirituality and the hopes of lay people, usually led by the Mendicant friars. This includes reportationes of vernacular sermons, hagiographical and biblical translations, religious poetry, religious plays (“sacre rappresentazioni”) and the multifaceted mystical literature, mainly produced by women (letters, tractates, visions). Collections of “volgarizzamenti” (“renderings in the vulgar tongue”), databases, critical editions, monographs on particular figures and moments in the religious experience (e.g. the meetings dedicated to the Poor Clares of Franciscan Observance), which are currently in preparation, will be the premise for a more detailed and objective survey of medieval religious literature.

Alessandra Bartolomei Romagnoli
Women and Men Writing about Women

In the last forty years late medieval mystical literature, which had been marginalized in the academic tradition, has established itself as a strategic field in the analysis of religious language. This renewed interest has been prompted by various other types of research, for example, the renewal of hagiographic studies, women’s studies, the new attention to spiritual movements and outsiders and the relationships between charismatic and institutional powers. In this field, the anthology of the “Scrittrici mistiche italiane” (1988) was very important and innovative, stimulating new studies and editions of texts. After reconsidering the hermeneutic proposals of Giovanni Pozzi and Claudio Leonardi, who edited the results of that innovative project, here we point out three possible paths to access the mystical texts, examining the relationships of the new spiritual language with literature, theology and history.

Roberto Lambertini
History, History of Political Thought and Theology: a Complicated Relationship

The paper deals with the relationship between medieval history and the history of medieval political thought. The author claims that, after a long period of time in which political thought was not considered a relevant object of a genuine historical inquiry, the situation is changing. In is opinion, the so-called linguistic turn has contributed to overcoming a prejudice against political thought, wrongly considered to be too abstract and unable to interpret historical reality. In order to support his claim, the author mentions not only recent volumes, such as “The Languages of Political Society” (2011), but also the contributions by Giacomo Todeschini and Paolo Evangelisti, deeply rooted in the legacy of Ovidio Capitani’s teaching. Enrico Artifoni’s ground-breaking studies on political communication in the Italian “communi” show how fruitful attention to language can also lead to a better understanding of the true functioning of civic institutions. In the second part, the paper focuses on the renewed attention to “political theology”, intended not exclusively in the terms of Carl Schmitt, but rather in those of Ernst Kantorowicz. Referring to Antony Black, the author shows that it legitimates to speak of a theological language as one among other medieval political languages through which life in society and its sense in history were interpreted.

Dario Internullo, Michele Lodone
The Studies on Prophetism: Reflections on the Last Decades

The article proposes several reflections on the studies on medieval and early modern prophetism produced in the last few decades, with the purpose of outlining its most relevant issues. From a methodological point of view, an ever-increasing attention to philological, material and cultural aspects can be observed. This scrupulousness has entailed a decrease in the importance not only of “classical” one-sided theses but also of the attention paid to ideal aspirations and general historical changes, which, until a decade ago, was an important feature of the historiography of prophetism. The text is divided into three sections: the first focuses on the relationship between prophetism and the political dimension; the second deals with the cultural aspects of the prophetic phenomenon; the third reflects on those authors and prophetic traditions that have become better known thanks to recent publications.

Marina Benedetti
Heresy and Inquisition. Historiographical and methodological observations and editions of sources

Heresy and Inquisition are very fascinating subjects and this is even more true if the few documents survived are studied in connection with their conservation and transmission, because textual transmission opens new perspectives in this field of research. Starting from the most recent historiographical production, the article deals with methodological problems to offer a new approach in the edition of documents. Taken into consideration are the most known medieval heretics, mainly in the Italian contest, such as Guglielma, Dolcino da Novara, Cathars and Waldenses. So that sources, textual transmission, literacy, method of analysis and historiographical debates work all together to get a better knowledge of the heretics, but also of the inquisitors.