XXIV (2003)

Hünermann P., Neue Loci Theologici. Ein Beitrag zur methodischen Erneuerung der Theologie, XXIV, 1-22.

Beginning with the Vatican II, theology approaches the various historical testimonies of faith with extremely differentiated methods. A renewal of the traditional doctrine of .Loci Theologici. (Melchior Cano) is therefore necessary, in order to avoid the fragmentation of the issue into a pile of historical details. With the expression .Loci Theologici. one can indicate those obligatory instances of the testimony of faith which constitute the points of reference in the theological field. The constitutive places, the Scriptures and the apostolic tradition are cultivated in their historicity and in their mutual implications, for which it is necessary to determine in a new manner their normative conception. The authority of the Church like the communion of the believers must be included, beginning from sensus fidei, whereas the authority of magisterium is functional to the consent of the believers and it offers to this consent a public expression. The liturgy too, according with the Author, constitutes an important ≪locus pragmaticus≫; as well as the traditions offaith in other Churches and ecclesiastical communities, which might be considered a specific ≪locus≫. The so-called loci alieni should be re-determined (because a reference to the loci implies the inclusion of linguistic groups and communities): the article deals with these loci alieni, namely philosophies, sciences, culture, society, religions, and history. Judaism, in such a perspective, plays a specific function for the Christian comprehension of faith.

Jiménez Sànchez J.A., «O amentia monstruosa!». A proposito de la cristianización de la liturgia imperial y del ritual circense durante el siglo V, XXIV, 23-40.

Salviano of Marsiglia, in two passages of De Gubernatione Dei denounces the fact that in its time circus games and theatrical performances were offered to Christ, as a token of thanks for the triumphs obtained in the war against Rome’s enemies. The cause of this criticism is found in the theology of imperial victory: beginning with Constantine, the Christian God is conceived as the divine dispenser of victory; for which several Christian symbols (for example, like the cross which overhung the sovereign scepter) were exhibited at the games played to celebrate the victories. To this element, we must add the christianization of the circus ritual, which we can observe as early as the fifth century. Upon his arrival on the stage, the emperor was used to bless the people, who then responded with acclamations that invoked the blessing of God on the king forever. Consequently all of these Christian elements present in the circus scandalized Salviano.

Astafieva E., La Russie en Terre Sainte: le cas de la Société Impériale Orthodoxe de Palestine (1882-1917), XXIV, 41-68.

Beginning in the medieval times, Jerusalem and the Holy Land have occupied a privileged place in the collective Russian conscience, whether religiously, politically, or popularly. Despite this symbolic importance, the first Russian foundations in Palestine made their apparition only in the ninth century. The author reconstructs the origin of one of these institutions, the ≪Orthodox Society of Palestine≫, created in 1882 which then became ≪imperial≫ in 1889, as well as its principal activities: the diffusion in the Russian empire of knowledge pertaining to the Holy Land, the organization of pilgrimages in Palestine and the construction of schools and hospitals for the Arab population. Based on Russian sources, the article demonstrates both the mechanisms of the construction of religious representations and the politics utilized by the Society’s responsibles for promoting the movement of the pilgrims to the Holy Land. The significance of this cultural phenomenon is also outlined.

Parola A., «Proiezione dell’Università Cattolica». L’associazione dei laureati «L. Necchi» nell’immediato dopoguerra (1945-1948), XXIV, 69-114.

The eighty year old history of the Catholic University of Sacred Heart is an inter esting object for scholars. The founder, Father Agostino Gemelli, wanted to introduce his academy to Italian cultural agora as an official forge of’ Catholic culture; Gemelli’s program was to recruit the best candidates to make up the leading class: the graduates found in the alumni association, ≪L. Necchi≫, a most valuable instrument of interrelation, after the years of academic life. During the Second World War, under G. Lazzati’s presidency, the ≪L. Necchi≫ association experienced a time of democratic vivacity: the members questioned the very role of the Catholic university, the meaning of the secular apostolate, the autonomy of political choices, and the proportion between formation and action.

Studer B., Ein «anderer Augustinus». Überlegungen zu einem bemerkenswerten Buch, XXIV, 115-134.

The book ≪L’altro Agostino≫, by G. Lettieri deserves attention: it provides rich information and intriguing insights. Lettieri’s thesis is that at the base of the first part of De doctrina christiana there is the primitive Augustinian formulation of the doctrine of grace, while the second part, written in 426-427, is oriented to a defence of the doctrine of grace, as it was defended by Augustine after 396. This hypothesis is well documented and can be accepted. However is it necessary to accept a more ancient dating of the De doctrina christiana? This is a different problem. A part from some secondary points, it is necessary to consider two basic criticisms. On the one hand Lettieri’s evaluation of the Augustine’s doctrine of grace is too unilateral, in particular when he explains the doctrine of predestination without a eareful consideration of the whole history of the doctrine of grace. On the other hand Lettieri totally neglects to pay attention to the relationships between faith and history fundamental for the Augustinian theology.

Riccardi A., Il febbrile entusiasmo. L’amicizia di Ernesto Buonaiuti con Enzo Santarelli e i sogni di rinascita spirituale del secondo dopoguerra, XXIV, 135-148.

The article deals with the late legacy of modernism, at the end of World War 2. It considers the last years of Ernesto Buonaiuti – one of the leading theologians of Italian modernism: in these years he experiences a true renewal of his cultural activity and he reflects on the possible spiritual renewal of his country. The role of some friends of Buonaiuti (mostly Enzo Santarelli, and also Valdo Vinay, Fernando Tartaglia, Arturo C. Jemolo, and others) is described though unpublished sources.

Jossua J-P., Le concile d’Yves Congar, XXIV, 149-153.

Alberigo G., P. Congar, Dossetti e l’«officina bolognese», XXIV, 154-166.

These two articles offer an integrated presentation and evaluation of the edition of conciliar diaries written by Father Yves Congar during the Second Vatican Council. Jossua lists the most remarkable aspects of these diaries, either from the point of view of comprehending the conciliar event and as a source for the study concerning Congar as a theologian. Alberigo offers unpublished documents, which integrate various notes of Congar’s Journal, he also describes the frequent and fruitful contacts of collaboration between Congar, Lercaro, Dossetti, and the Bolognese group during the Council.

Ruzer S., Who is Unhappy with the Davidic Messiah? Notes on Biblical Exegesis in 4Q161, 4Q174, and the Book of Acts,XXIV, 229-256.

This study opens with an investigation of two exegetical fragments from Qumran in which a polemical re-evaluation of the Davidic Messiah’s role and status is achieved by means of biblical exegesis. The Qumranic evidence also informs a general discussion of the exegetical situation with regard to the Davidic Messiah in nascent Christianity. It is suggested that both in Qumran and in the Jesus movement – two eschatologically oriented communities – the inherited emphasis on Davidic messiahship turned out to be problematic: it did not exactly fit either ≪group interests≫ (Qumran) or a type of experienced eschatological reality (nascent Christianity). A detailed analysis follows centring on evidence from the Book of Acts; exegetical strategies of Acts tailored to alleviate the problem of Jesus’ Davidic messianship are outlined.

Fatti F., Tra Costantinopoli e Alessandria: l’edilizia filantropica cristiana al Concilio di Calcedonia, XXIV, 257-296.

At Chalcedon, the deacon Ischyrion accused Dioscorus of having damaged the xencônes and the ptôkheia of Alexandria, as he had deprived them of the donation of a rich benefactress, Peristeria. The charitable institutions that had fallen victim to the metropolitans rapacity were considered to be expression of the new philanthropia of the Church. Thus the accusation was aimed at harming the public image of the bishop, whose fitness for the role was called into question. This strategy, which served the interests of Constantinople, had already been used against the powerful see of Saint Mark in the time of Theophilua, the greedy ≪Pharaon≫ who had been accused of having persecuted the xenodokhos Isidorus. After Dioscorus, the level of support for philanthropic institutions would be increasingly used to show the benevolence of the episcopal leadership also in Alexandria, where it would become an important issue in the internal conflicts at the patriarchal see.

Cecchinelli A., Un sinodo del cardinale Alessandro Farnese a Parma (1519), XXIV, 297-326.

Among the most significant acts performed by cardinal Alessandro Farnese, later Pope Paul III, in the diocese of Parma, of which he was the bishop-administrator from 1509 until 1534, we must include the celebration of a synod in 1519. With this official act he aimed at following the direction given by the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17), in which he had participated. This article inquires into the sources and the contents of the constitutions promulgated on that occasion, which closely recalls the canons of the Fourth and Fifth Lateran Council, with regard to clerical discipline. Beside these rules, the document published after the synod presents a part called Monitiones et instructiones, which is a kind of treatise for the priests on the basic knowledge of the divine offices and the administration of sacraments, taken from a 14th-century synod celebrated in Parma by Papiniano della Rovere.

Eder M., «Mut zur Neuerung in Treue zur Tradition» Die Aktualität Herman Schells heute, XXIV, 327-334.

Würzburg Apologist Hermann Schell (1850-1906) had been one of the most significant professors of systematic theology that occupied a Catholic chair in the nineteenth century. However, having been classified and consumed by continuous suspicions and intrigues, at the same time he represents one of the tragic figures of  the recent history of the Church. With his anticipatory thought, he had something to say to us as well. We can therefore consider ourselves fortunate for the fact that anti-modernistic forces, from the 19th to the 20th century, were not able to throw a lifetime work into oblivion, a work which was significant for a dialogue with natural sciences, with non-Christian religions, and in particular for ecumenism.

Faggioli M., Concilio Vaticano II: bollettino bibliografico (2000-2002), XXIV, 335-360.

The essay, in the first part, goes over the brief history of bibliography on the Vatican Council II from its conclusion to the present, individualizing two principal phases. The first twenty years of studies (1965-1985) saw the pre-eminence of the news from four periods and of commentaries discussing the constitutions, decrees, and declarations of the Vatican II, with the creation of a specific series of studies dedicated to the Council as well as the collective actions and monographs dedicated for the most part to the study of the four constitutions of Vatican II. The second period of the bibliography, which can be identified in the fifteen years of 1985-2000, saw the immense development of the historiography on the Council, above all thanks to the impulse given to it by the international project which resulted in the publication of a story of the Vatican II in many more volumes. In the second part of the essay, the bibliography of Vatican II published in the three years of 2000-2002 is taken into consideration, uniform for the thematics ambits: sources and instruments for the research, studies on the Council (protagonists and themes), and the reception of the Vatican II. In conclusion, several lines have been enunciated, on the basis of the existing bibliography and some of its lacunas, for the development of research on the Council.

Alberigo G., La dialettica tra movimento e istituzione nel lungo periodo, XXIV, 437-452.

The article examines the movements that have influenced Western Christianity most strongly during early Christian history and the Middle Ages. It goes on to consider contemporary movements focussing on some of these in particular, such as Social Christianity, and deals specifically with a number of aspects relating to them, such as the doctrinal dimension and institutionalization.

Spinosa G., Eκκλησία – ecclesia – secta – ordo nel cristianesimo dei primi secoli: una riflessione sul lessico, XXIV, 453-488.

A semantic analysis of the key historical-religious terms ἐκκλησία/ecclesia, secta, and ordo in early Christian history, reveals a tension between trends aimed at the creation of movements and those focussing on institution building. This tension was manifest from the very origins of Christianity and continued throughout Christian history over the millennia. The meaning of the term ἐκκλησία/ecclesia in both the Old and New Testament refers to different situations, which cannot always be identified accurately. Between the opposite ends of the spectrum marked by the specific community on the one hand, and the universal Church on the other, the term is used in turn to mean the people’s Assembly of God (Old Testament) and (in the Epistles of St. Paul) a domestic community, the local community of a town or region, and a combination of several communities which, in some cases, represent the universal Church. A true ecclesiological school did develop, however, starting from the Apostolic fathers and through proto-Christian history. Tension and polarity also characterized the relationship between the secta (as the Christian movement itself was originally labelled) and the hierarchically structured ordo, which provided the framework for the development of the Church starting from the 2th Century. In Greek and Latin Classicism, the term secta/haeresis/αιρεσις originally had a neutral connotation, implying a chosen way of life and thinking. It was not until the onset of controversialist approaches that it acquired the negative meaning of separation from and questioning of the dominant institution and became associated with notions of heresy and schism. Modern sociological analyses, beginning with Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch, have given new impetus to a neutral interpretation of the sect, particularly Protestant sects. In this sense, the sect is regarded as an appeal for a return to the original values of Christian life and the result of a free individual choice rather than driven by the institution. With regard to ordo, the analysis shows that in the bipolar division between ordo monasticus (with individualist and ascetic tendencies) and ordo ecclesiasticus (institutionalized and hierarchical), the bipartite division of ordo (τάξις) is consistent with classical semantics. Accordingly, the interpretation of ordo as an orderly arrangement and rule corresponds to the ordo monasticus, while ordo as social rank or class corresponds to the ordo ecclesiasticus as the underpinning of the theological notion of hierarchy (Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite).

TheiBen G., Urchristentum als Bewegung. Von innerjüdischen Oppositions- und Erneuerungsbewegungen zur Entstehung einer neuen Religion im Römischen Reich, XXIV, 489-516.

The article answers two questions: (1) Why did only the Jesus movement among all other Jewish renewal movement succeed in establishing a long lasting religious community? Why this stability? (2) Why succeeded this community, i.e. Early Christianity, in maintaining its character of being a dynamic movement? The following theses are suggested: (1) The Jesus movement learnt by the failure of other precedent renewal movements in Judaism. This explains its stability. (2) Its dynamic is based on tensions between its deviating way of life and the main institution of antiquity, the oikos and the polis. Ascetism shows the conflict with the oikos, martyrdom the conflict with the polis.

Kott V. – Seidenberg S., Spiritual Movements in Russian Orthodoxy: History and Interpretation, XXIV, 517-580.

The article reconstructs the history of spiritual movements within the Russian Orthodox Church. The first part of the study looks at the key players in the early spiritual movements, starting from St. Cyril and St. Methodius, from the monastic movements through to the Old Believers and Bishop Mogila. The second part focuses on the Church renewal movements that were formed between the 19th and 20th century prior to the October Revolution. The third part traces the movement of members of the Russian intelligentsia returning to the Orthodox Church starting from the 1950s, and examines the current make-up of the Transfiguration movemcnt (Community of Orthodox Fellowships) as well as its strained relations with the institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church and the post-Soviet political power structures.

Delcorno C., Predicatori e movimenti religiosi. Confronto e tensioni (secc. XII-XIV), XXIV, 581-618.

Inspired by the ideal of the ≪apostolic life≫, all religious movements had one feature in common, that is, the ≪instinct of the Word≫. Most of the 12th – and 13th – century heresies, starting from Waldesian heresy, stemmed from disobedience by laymen and laywomen to the Episcopal and papal order forbidding them to preach. In this respect, Pope Innocent III deserves credit for allowing some freedom to the religious movements that were compatible with the Roman tradition, beginning with the Order of Preachers whose distinctive quality originated from their dialogue with Catharist preachers. The emergence of the Mendicant Orders and the 4th Lateran Council was a crucial turning point in the historical development of preaching. The latter had been radically renewed by St. Francis of Assisi, but was also boosted by the initiative of bishops (such as Folco of St. Euphemia) who were responsive to the experiences emerging from the Parisian environment of Pietro Cantore. The centrality of preaching in the medieval religious experience is well illustrated by the function it performed of providing the stimulus, the guiding force and the organisational framework for the great devotional movements that developed between the 13th and 14th centuries (from the Alleluja to the processions of the Whites). Equally representative of the centrality of preaching in the period is the presence of preaching activities within the life of confraternities and their power to inspire a vast body of religious literature which, in fact, contains the first examples of ≪reportationes≫ of homiletic texts in Vulgar Latin.

Ganzer K., Die geistlichen Bewegungen als Selbstreform der Kirche im 16. Jahrhundert, XXIV, 619-658.

In the course of their historical development the character of spiritual movements has changed in parallel with the changes affecting human society. Reform has meant neither restoration nor revolution but a quest for creative renewal. The history of the Church has been punctuated by constant appeals for reform, calling for a return to original tenets of the Gospel. This call was also supported by Italian humanism in the 15th and 16th centuries, a period in which the driving forces for the renewal of theology and ecclesial life were manifold and voiced by both individual personalities and groups. In some cases, the phenomenon have risen to new religious orders, although it also led to some instances of single individuals leaving the Church. In Italian circles the dominant belief among some representatives of the cause for religious renewal inspired by the Scriptures and by St. Augustine’s theological approach, was that man was not justified by his efforts but only by the undeserved grace of Christ. In this respect, their ideas were close to those of German and Swiss reformers. In many cases, this provided the basis of suspicions of heresy by the Inquisition which consequently initiated proceedings against them, without sparing even high representatives of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. While there were many impulses toward reform within these movements, some of their objectives were curtailed due to a pusillanimous fear of heretical infiltrations.

Fouilloux É., I movimenti di riforma nel pensiero cattolico tra XIX e XX secolo, XXIV, 659-776.

The evolutionary factors of the Catholic Church from the end of the 19th century to the Second Vatican Council are clearly manifold and complex. Among these, the place of ≪movements≫ rooted in the return to the intellectual and spiritual sources of the Christian message is more often based on claims than actually demonstrated in practice (e.g. biblical, patristic, liturgical, catechetical, ecumenical, and pro-Semitic movements). The purpose of this brief analysis is simply to provide a frame of reference, albeit a provisional one, for future in-depth studies in this field, based on a three-fold perspective that considers the chronological, geographical, and sociological dimension. The study puts forward the preliminary propositions, firstly, that a chronological analysis would, to a large extent, depend on how long the movements have had to deal with the constrictions imposed by hierarchy, secondly, that their cradle is to be found in the countries of North-Western Europe, divided along confessional lines or subjected to a premature process of laicisation, and thirdly, that their members mostly belong to the new educated classes of Catholic society and the popular militants of Catholic Action, either in a general form or specialised according to individual circles. It will be the task of current or future research on these movements to correct the propositions outlined here, the sole purpose of which is to outline one of the possible ways in which the intransigent and religiously defensive Catholicism of the 19th century has been able to reform itself, at least partially.

Faggioli M., Tra chiesa territoriale e chiese personali. I movimenti ecclesiali nel postconcilio Vaticano II, XXIV, 677-704.

The aim of the study is to examine the main stages in the growth of the role and significance of movements within the Church from the Second Vatican Council to the Jubilee 2000. In the course of their development, it is thought that movements achieved a growing presence in pastoral life and within the Papal Magisterum. This led to major changes taking place within the lay apostolate in the Second Vatican Council and in the activities associated with Catholic movements dominated by Catholic Action. In the first post-Council period and the Magisterum of Pope Paul VI, dialectical relations can be seen to have developed between the ecclesiastical hierarchies and the movements. Toward the end of the papacy of Paul VI, however, the dialogue became sensitive to the new associational environment that was emerging. Finally, the papacy of John Paul II brought the dawning of a new season, characterized by the decisive effort to relaunch ecclesial associations and movements, within the framework of the ≪new evangelization≫ that was being embraced. The ecclesial recognition granted to movements and the role accorded to them during the Jubilee 2000, epitomized this stance. The final part of the essay puts forward a hypothesis on future developments in the role of movements in the Church, focussing in particular on the problem of their institutionalization, the issue of their Weltanschauung, their membership and visibility, and their relationship with local Churches.

Etienne B., Du radicalisme islamique comme mouvement, XXIV, 705-722.

The article analyses the movements that have emerged in the last thirty years which oppose a compromising form of Islam – regarded by them as the result of the modernity brought about by colonisation – and state their intention of reviving a Golden Age of Islam. In order to understand the problem, it is important to consider the competition and possible compromises between lay Arab militants and Muslim militants: an objective relationship of conflict in Islam even after the fall of the caliphate and the sultanate. The study analyses the role of the traditional Islamic (subsequently Islamicist) clergy and the role of movements, by assessing the relationship between religious movements and .political. Islam. It examines the specificity of radical, or political, Islam among movements based on a monotheistic religion and the typology of Islamic movements.

Salvarani B., La fantasia dello spirito, le nostre fantasie. Per una rassegna della letteratura sui movimenti cristiani, XXIV, 723-752.

The novelties introduced by the Second Vatican Council coincided with the intensification of religious activities in the Catholic world. On the one hand, these involved the relaunching of communities, groups and associations that had grown in previous years. On the other, they gave rise to new, more innovative forms of aggregation with the ability to respond positively to the changes that were occurring. The aim of this study is to provide a (necessarily incomplete but nevertheless representative) review of the main bibliography dealing with these aggregations. The analysis is divided into three parts, corresponding in turn to three particular ecclesiastical periods. The first is the period immediately following the Council, which saw the final de-structuring of the Catholic ≪Movement≫, leading to a situation of openness toward and pluralization of associational phenomena. The second is the long period that followed, marked by the mutual contra-positioning of the different movements, despite repeated attempts by the Magisterum to reunite them from above. The third and final period witnessed, alongside the progressive institutionalization of many movements, the growth of new kinds of groupings. These were characterized by a diminished sense of belonging as well as a strong investment in a dual direction, focussing, on the one hand, on globalism, ethics and solidarity, and on the other, on Intimist and Pneumatic approaches. The article ends by casting an eye on the future, where points that stand out clearly are intermingled with questions and perplexities: it appears that the game to determine the role of movements within Churches is, to a large extent, still waiting to be played out.